Eukaryotic cell structure

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Eukaryotic cell structure by Mind Map: Eukaryotic cell structure

1. Nucleus

1.1. Structure

1.1.1. Nucleolus

1.1.1.1. Makes rRNA &assembles ribosomes

1.1.2. Chromatin

1.1.2.1. DNA

1.1.3. Nuclear envelope

1.1.3.1. double membrane

1.1.4. Pore

1.1.4.1. allows passage of mRNA

1.2. Function

1.2.1. Contains DNA ->codes for mRNA -> makes proteins

1.2.2. Makes rRNA and ribosomes

1.3. Largest Organelle

2. Mitochondria

2.1. 3rd largest in plant cell, 2nd in animal cell

2.2. Structure

2.2.1. double membrane

2.2.2. Cristae (inner membrane)

2.2.2.1. large surface area for attachment of enzymes

2.2.3. Matrix

2.2.3.1. Contains proteins, lipids, ribosomes, DNA

2.2.3.2. Can make protein e.g. ATP synthase, enzymes

2.3. Function

2.3.1. Site of aerobic respiration

2.3.1.1. uses glucose; makes ATP

2.4. A lot of mitochondria required

2.4.1. In cells requiring a lot of ATP

2.4.2. e.g. epithelial cells for active transport

2.4.3. Muscle cells for muscle contraction -> movement

3. Eukaryotic Features

3.1. Distinct nucleus

3.2. membrane-bound organelles

4. Vacuole

4.1. In plant cells

4.2. Structure

4.2.1. Fluid-filled sac

4.2.2. Single membrane

4.2.3. solution of sugar, amino acids, pigment etc.

4.3. Function

4.3.1. Makes plant cells turgid

4.3.2. Temporary food store

4.3.3. pigment -> colour petal

4.3.3.1. attracts pollinator

5. Cell wall

5.1. In plant cells

5.1.1. made of cellulose

5.1.1.1. H bonds -> microfibril

5.1.1.2. Provides rigidity & strength

5.1.1.3. Prevents bursting

5.2. In algae

5.2.1. Cellulose/glycoprotein

5.3. In fungi

5.3.1. Chitin, glycan, glycoprotein

5.4. In bacteria

5.4.1. Murein

6. Endoplasmic Reticulum

6.1. Stacks of membrane-bound sac (cristernae)

6.2. Rough ER

6.2.1. With ribosomes

6.2.1.1. Large surface area for attachment of ribosomes

6.2.2. Function = Makes ribosomes

6.3. Smooth ER

6.3.1. Without ribosomes

6.3.2. Function

6.3.2.1. Makes carbohydrates and lipids

6.3.2.2. Contains enzymes for detoxification (breaking harmful substances)

6.4. Cells that make & store proteins, lipids, carbohydrates

6.4.1. Have a lot of ER

6.4.2. E.g. liver cells, epithelial cells

7. Chloroplast

7.1. 2nd largest organelle (Plant cells)

7.2. Structure & Function

7.2.1. Chloroplast membrane

7.2.2. Grana: Stacked thylakoid

7.2.2.1. Contain chlorophyll (absorbs light)

7.2.2.2. Large surface area

7.2.2.3. 1st stage of photosynthesis

7.2.3. Stroma

7.2.3.1. Contain enzymes for synthesis of sugar = 2nd stage of photosynthesis

7.2.3.2. Contain DNA & ribosomes to make proteins for photosynthesis

8. Lysosome

8.1. A vesicle containing hydrolytic enzymes

8.2. Function

8.2.1. Hydrolyse materials ingested by phagocytes

8.2.2. Release enzymes by exocytosis

8.2.3. Digests old/surplus organelles so useful chemicals can be used

8.2.4. Break down cells after the death of the cells = autolysis

9. Ribosome

9.1. Smallest organelle

9.2. Structure

9.2.1. rRNA

9.2.1.1. Joins amino acids in correct order

9.2.2. enzyme

9.2.2.1. Makes peptide bonds

9.3. 2 types

9.3.1. 80s in eukaryotic cells (cytoplasm)

9.3.2. 70s in prokaryotic cells, mitochondria, chloroplasts

10. Cytoplasm

10.1. Where chemical reactions occur

11. Plasma membrane

11.1. Phospholipid bilayer

11.2. Controls passage of substances

12. Golgi body & vesicles

12.1. Function = packages and transports proteins

12.1.1. Modifies protein (adding carbohydrates)

12.1.2. Produces vesicles for exocytosis

12.1.3. Transport, modify & store lipids

12.2. Structure

12.2.1. Stacks of membrane-bound sac (cristernae)

12.2.2. With small hollows = vesicles

12.3. In secretory cells

12.3.1. A lot of Golgi body

12.3.2. E.g. goblet cells which secrete mucus