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Theoretical Perspectives by Mind Map: Theoretical Perspectives
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Theoretical Perspectives

The theories and points of view of renown scholars and researchers as they apply to the study of a child's ability and capacity to develop language competencies.

Nature

What we are born with.

What we get from the environment.

Interactionist

Interactionists Lev Vygotsky and Jerome Bruner argued that language development is both biological and social (Morrison, 2009). A child's language learning is influenced by his/her desire to communicate with others (Morrison, 2009). Social and cultural influences primarily form language (Otto, 2010). The child is plays an active role in acquiring language (Otto, 2010). Theory also focuses on the process rather than the product of language (Otto, 2010). Morrison, G.S. (2009). Early childhood education today. (11th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Otto, B. (2010). Language development in early childhood (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill    

A child's language learning is influenced by his/her desire to communicate with others (Morrison, 2009).

The child is plays an active role in acquiring language (Otto, 2010).

Social and cultural influences primarily form language (Otto, 2010).

Theory also focuses on the process rather than the product of language (Otto, 2010).

Interactionists Lev Vygotsky and Jerome Bruner argued that language development is both biological and social (Morrison, 2009).

Vygotsky

Bruner

References Morrison, G.S. (2009). Early childhood education today. (11th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Otto, B. (2010). Language development in early childhood (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill

Cognitive Interactionist

Cognitive Interactionists such as Jean Piaget, believed that development results from interaction and transactions between children and their social and physical environments and children build cognitive development through active learning (Bickhard, 1997). Piaget's theory is based on cognitive development and set into motion by the process of maturation. He believed that children could not achieve certain milestones until they were psychologically mature enough to do so. Believed that all children progress through four prescribed stages of development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational (Bickard, 1997). Active involvement if fundamental to Piaget's theory as are the concepts of adaptation, schemes, assimilation, accommodation and equilibrium (Morrison, 2009). Morrison, G.S. (2009) Early childhood education today (11th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Bickard, M.H. (1997). Piget and Active Cognition. Human Development 40(4), 238-244. Retrieved March 8, 2012 from Reasearch Library. (Document ID: 17465632).        

Piaget

Cognitive Interactionists such as Jean Piaget, believed that development results from interaction and transactions between children and their social and physical environments and children build cognitive development through active learning (Bickhard, 1997).

Piaget's theory is based on cognitive development and set into motion by the process of maturation. He believed that children could not achieve certain milestones until they were psychologically mature enough to do so (Morrison, 2009).

Believed that all children progress through four prescribed stages of development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational (Bickard, 1997).

Active involvement if fundamental to Piaget's theory as are the concepts of adaptation, schemes, assimilation, accommodation and equilibrium (Morrison, 2009).

References Bickard, M.H. (1997). Piget and Active Cognition. Human Development 40(4), 238-244. Retrieved March 8, 2012 from Reasearch Library. (Document ID: 17465632). Morrison, G.S. (2009). Early childhood education today. (11th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson

Behaviorist

Behavior theorist B.F. Skinner’s key contribution to psychology was his operant conditioning theory- learning occurs when environmental consequences occur as a result of a specific behavior (Otto, 2010). Argued that children are born a "blank slate" and are influence by stimuli, responses and reinforcements that occur in the environment. Gave emphasis to the role of “nurture” on language development. Otto, B. (2010). Language development in early childhood (3rd edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill

Skinner

Behavior theorist B.F. Skinner’s key contribution to psychology was his operant conditioning theory- learning occurs when environmental consequences occur as a result of a specific behavior (Otto, 2010).

Argued that children are born a "blank slate" and are influence by stimuli, responses and reinforcements that occur in the environment (Otto, 2010).

Gave emphasis to the role of “nurture” on language development (Otto, 2010).

Otto, B. (2010). Language development in early childhood (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill

Nativist

Nativist Perspective is based on the belief that language development is innate in humans (Otto, 2010). One of the leading theorists connected with the nativist perspective, Noam Chomsky argued that humans inherently have the ability to obtain language due to cognitive structures that process language differently than other stimuli (Otto, 2010). Devised a rule system for using language called universal grammar that explains the human ability to learn a culture's specific language(Otto, 2010). Believed that humans are born with a language specific mechanism called language acquisition device, commonly referred to as LAD. This devise helps humans learn language (Otto,2010). Otto, B. (2010). Language development in early childhood (3rd ed). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill.

Chomsky

Nativist Perspective is based on the belief that language development is innate in humans (Otto, 2010).

One of the leading theorists connected with the nativist perspective, Noam Chomsky argued that humans inherently have the ability to obtain language due to cognitive structures that process language differently than other stimuli (Otto, 2010).

Devised a rule system for using language called universal grammar that explains the human ability to learn a culture's specific language(Otto, 2010).

Believed that humans are born with a language specific mechanism called language acquisition device, commonly referred to as LAD. This devise helps humans learn language (Otto,2010).

Otto, B. (2010). Language development in early childhood (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill

Nurture

What we learn from the environment.

What we are born with.