Bilingualism vs Multilingualism - What's the difference?

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Bilingualism vs Multilingualism - What's the difference? by Mind Map: Bilingualism vs Multilingualism - What's the difference?

1. Bilingualism

1.1. is having the ability to speak two languages

2. Multilingualism

2.1. is pertaining to multiple languages or is a sociolinguistic situation in which more than one languages is involved and can be by individual or by community of speakers.

3. What is a multi-lingual person?

3.1. A multilingual person is one who can communicate in more than one language, be it actively (through speaking, writing, or signing) or passively (through listening, reading, or perceiving).

3.2. Example an English-speaking father married to a Mandarin Chinese speaking mother with the family living in Hong Kong, where the community language (and primary language of education) is Cantonese. the child goes to a Cantonese medium school from a young age, then trilingualism will be the result.

4. A multilingual person is generally referred to as a polyglot.

4.1. Glot (Greek: ydÚTTa) means language

4.2. Poly (Greek: TTOAÚS) means "many",

5. Bilingualism are divided in two

5.1. Bilingualism as an individual

5.1.1. a psychological state of an individual who has access to two language codes to serve communication purposes.

5.2. Bilingualism as a societal

5.2.1. : two languages are used in a community and that a number of individuals can use two languages.

6. Five important variables in relation to bilingualism:

7. Degree of bilingualism.

7.1. Degree of Bilingualism – Balanced Bilinguals

7.1.1. Individuals fully competent in both languages

7.1.2. They are considered to be almost native speaker in both languages

7.2. Degree of Bilingualism – Dominant Bilinguals

7.2.1. Individuals who are dominant in one language.

7.2.2. Less dominant language = ‘subordinate.’

7.2.3. Dominance does not apply to all domains.

7.3. Degree of Bilingualism – Passive / Recessive Bilinguals

7.3.1. Individuals who are gradually losing competence in one language, usually because of disuse.

7.3.2. common among immigrant groups

7.4. Degree of Bilingualism – Semilinguals / Limited Bilinguals

7.4.1. • Individuals who appear to have limited proficiency in both languages

7.4.2. Unconscious processing of language (automation)

7.4.3. Language creation

8. context of bilingual language acquisition

8.1. Context of Bilingual Language Acquisition

8.1.1. Naturalistic fused setting: no separation of context for both languages; child is exposed to both languages in the same context.

8.1.2. Naturalistic separate setting: one parent, one language model; but also applies to other interlocutors, i.e., siblings, peers, grandparents, etc.

8.1.3. Elective bilinguals: individuals who have some element of choice about learning a second language.

8.1.4. Circumstantial bilinguals: individuals who have no choice about learning a second language; indigenous colonized or minority groups.

9. Age of acquisition

9.1. According to many, learning a second language becomes more difficult when you are adult.

9.2. Learning a second language may be easier as a child.

9.3. Possible factors: • Neurological • Aptitudes • Attitude • identity and motivation • nature of exposure

10. domain of use of each language

10.1. Interlocutors: a language relationship tends to evolve naturally

10.2. Place or Location: work vs. home; physical location like neighborhoods

10.3. Topic: language of technical discourse or cooking, gardening, etc.

11. social orientation

11.1. Additive vs. Subtractive Bilingualism

11.1.1. Subtractive bilingualism / differential bilingualism:

11.1.1.1. Without first language support, the learning of a new language may entail the loss of that first language.

11.1.2. • Additive bilingualism

11.1.2.1. an environment conducive to the development of the first language as well as the development of the second language results in the maintenance of both.

12. Bilingualism and Multilingualism