Swaziland

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Swaziland by Mind Map: Swaziland

1. Political

1.1. Absolute Monarchy

1.1.1. Ruling Body

1.1.1.1. King Mswati III

1.1.1.1.1. Bio: has been ruling over Swaziland since the age of 18. After his fathers death. He has 14 wife's the youngest is 16 and is sitting on 200 million dollar foundation when 69% of his people live on a dollar a day

1.1.1.2. Indlovukazi Ntombi

1.1.1.2.1. Bio: Queen Mother of King Maswati. She is the Deputy Head of State and co-Chairperson of the Swazi National Council with the king

1.1.1.3. Prime Minister Barnabas Sibusiso Dlamin

1.1.1.3.1. Bio: Appointed by the King his job's main focus is to,"suppress political organisations and advance the strong rule of the monarch"

1.2. Ethnic power

1.2.1. Nkosi Dlamini clan

1.2.1.1. Swazi peoples ruling clan

1.3. Elections

1.3.1. There are no elections or recognized political parties. The new King is appointed by the King before his death but is not announced until after the current king's death

1.3.2. Citizens are aloud to Vote for members of Parliament after the King has appointed his 10 member in House of Assembly. He also appoints 20 members in the Senate. leaving 55 spots in the House for election and 10 voted for in the Senate

1.4. Judiciary

1.4.1. High and Supreme courts

1.4.1.1. appointed by the King

1.4.1.1.1. Instead the laws of the country, laws are generated from: the Constitution, legislation, common law, judicial precedent, customary law, authoritative texts, and decreeslaws of the country are drawn from: the Constitution, legislation, common law, judicial precedent, customary law, authoritative texts, and decrees. The courts must draw on these to see if the convicted person broke any laws

1.5. Internal and External Opposition to the Government

1.5.1. Separatist Movements

1.5.1.1. Peoples United Democratic Movement

1.5.1.1.1. Leader: Mario Masuku

1.5.1.2. The Swaziland National Union of Students

1.5.1.2.1. Leader: Maxwell Dlamini

1.5.2. Terror Threats

1.5.2.1. Note: Both of the Separatist Movement groups are viewed as terrorist organization by the Kingdom of Swaziland

1.6. Government structure

1.6.1. Key Officials

1.6.1.1. Ngwenyama (King)

1.6.1.2. Ndlovukat (Queen Mother)

1.6.1.3. Prime Minister

1.6.2. Foreign Relations

1.6.2.1. Members of:

1.6.2.1.1. United Nations

1.6.2.1.2. Commonwealth of Nations

1.6.2.1.3. Southern Africa Development Community

1.6.2.2. Relations with United States include: Helping to prevent AIDS/HIV with the help of CDC and USAID

1.6.3. Constitution

1.6.3.1. Executive--monarch (head of state), prime minister (head of government--appointed by the king at the recommendation of the Swazi National Council (SNC)), cabinet (appointed by the king at the recommendation of the prime minister).

1.6.3.2. Legislative--Parliament consisting of the House of Assembly (65 members: 55 elected, 10 appointed by the king) and Senate (30 members: 10 appointed by the House of Assembly, 20 appointed by the king).

1.6.3.3. udicial--a dual court system of traditional courts under chiefs and a Roman-Dutch system comprising magistrates courts, High Court, Supreme Court (formerly Court of Appeals).

1.6.3.4. Administrative subdivisions: 4 regions, 11 municipal governments, and 55 tinkhundla centers (traditional administrative units).

1.6.4. No Political Parties are aloud to exist

1.6.5. Citizen Input

1.6.5.1. Citizens are aloud to Vote for members of Parliament after the King has appointed his 10 member in House of Assembly. He also appoints 20 members in the Senate. leaving 55 spots in the House for election and 10 voted for in the Senate

1.7. Unofficial Powers

1.7.1. NGOs

1.7.1.1. Crossroads International

1.7.1.1.1. Women's rights. based out of Canada

1.7.1.2. Red Cross Finland

1.7.1.2.1. Integrated Food Security and HIV/Aids, Swaziland

1.7.1.3. CANGO

1.7.1.3.1. umbrella organization of over 60 Non Governmental Organizations in Swaziland.

1.8. Regional/ Worldwide Influence

1.8.1. South Africa

1.8.2. Zambia

1.9. Current Policies

2. Military

2.1. Order Of Command

2.1.1. Commander-In-Chief: King Mswati III

2.1.2. Commander of Umbutfo Swaziland Defense Force:Major General Sobanto Dlamini

2.1.3. Principal Secretary in the Ministry of Defense: Andreas Mathabela

2.2. Status

2.2.1. In the absence of any operational experience against other forces, it is not possible to offer an evidential analysis of Swaziland's military capacity.

2.3. Capabilities

2.3.1. Strategic

2.3.1.1. British Army and South African Defence Force procedures and focuses entirely on internal security duties

2.3.2. Tactical

2.3.2.1. USDF does not have the capacity to carry out rapid deployments.

2.3.3. Types of Forces

2.3.3.1. Foot Soldiers

2.3.3.2. Pilots

2.4. Deployed Forces

2.4.1. The USDF has never fought in combat

2.5. Doctrine

2.5.1. Tactical doctrine has been loosely developed according to British Army and South African Defence Force procedures

2.5.1.1. focuses entirely on internal security duties

2.5.1.2. The mission of the USDF is to defend and protect the Kingdom of Swaziland, its national interests and values, provide support to the civil power in maintenance of law and order while contributing to regional and international peace and stability.

2.6. Order of Battle

2.6.1. Headquarters located in Nokwane

2.6.2. Air Division location: Zomba Air Base and Manzini-Matsapha International Airport.

2.7. Current Operations

2.7.1. Current Missions: to protect Swaziland's people and it's boarders

2.7.2. Training Operations

2.7.2.1. U.S. Africa Command and U.S. Army Africa: did MEDFLAG training. The training goal is to improve life for the people of Swaziland

2.7.2.2. Russian Ministry of Defense:provide training in a number of military disciplines that include medicine, artillery and engineering.

2.7.2.3. Pakistan: Reportedly the training covered how to deal with an uprising of a civilian population.

2.8. Technology and Equipment

2.8.1. Procurement: Failed arms deal with UK for helicopters, armed cars and machine guns

2.8.2. Development: equipping and barracking the 3,000 soldiers in its army, and now parliament has passed a US $8 million supplementary budget for the force

2.8.2.1. Most of the Barracks are located on the boarders

2.8.3. Tried to buy cell phone monitoring equipment but couldn't afford to pay for it

2.8.4. Small Arms include: SIG SG 540 IMI Galil LMG FN MAG

2.8.5. 70× RG-31 Nyala Mk5E and RG-31 Sabre armed vehicles, imported from South Africa.

2.8.6. Air force Airplanes include: IAI Arava ,Cessna 337, Super Skymaster , Canadair Global Express, Alouette III, Piper PA-28

2.9. Logistic

2.9.1. Directly responsible to the USDF commander. Each of the three light infantry battalions has a battalion-sized administrative and logistic support group.

2.10. Finance

2.10.1. Defense Budget

2.10.1.1. % of GDP: 4.7 % in 2006

2.11. Safety

2.11.1. Airports are secure all Passengers have to go through scans

2.11.2. Boarders are secure many Swazi People work on the Boarders.

3. Geographical Factors

3.1. Geographic Charactistics

3.1.1. Mainly mountainous on the western side, has some hills in central part, and sloping plains on the eastern side

3.1.1.1. Western movement is slowed do to the Drakensberg Mountains

3.1.2. Tropical to Temperate depending on location

3.1.3. Location

3.1.3.1. Coordinates: 26°30′S 31°30′E

3.1.3.2. Relative: Boarded by South Africa on the Northern,Western and Southern sides and Mozambique

3.1.4. Arable Land: 175000 Sq/Km about 10.17%

3.1.5. Seasons

3.1.5.1. Summer months:(December-March) rainy seasons in the form of Thunderstorms

3.1.5.2. Winter months(June-September) Dry season

3.2. Cities

3.2.1. Manzini (capital) located in the heart of Swaziland. It is the second largest City. It is very secure and resembles a modern U.S. city. Has a large airport, hotels, and shopping malls

3.2.2. Mbabane- largest City of Swaziland, located along Mbabane River. It is a tourist city and host of one of Swaziland University's Campuses.

3.3. State Borders

3.3.1. South Africa: In very good relations. They are in agreement to cooperate in anti-crime and anti-smuggling efforts along their common border. The boarder is mostly Moutainous. They allow them to set up ports in Durban, and Richards Bay

3.3.2. Mozambique are on friendly relations. They have grass lands on the common boarder. Allowed Swaziland to use Maputo for there exports.

3.4. Water

3.4.1. Swaziland has ports in boarder countries the ports are located in Durban, Richards Bay, and Maputo.

3.4.2. Rivers

3.4.2.1. Maputo

3.4.2.2. Ngwavuma

3.4.2.3. Komati

3.4.2.4. Mbuluzi

3.4.3. Average Rainfall

3.4.3.1. near-temperate climate with about 140 cm

3.4.3.2. subtropical and somewhat drier, with about 85 cm

3.4.3.3. tropical, is subhumid, receiving about 60 cm

3.4.4. water quality:limited supplies of potable water. Only 52 percent has excess to clean water

3.5. Environmental Threats

3.5.1. History of disasters (between 1980 and 2010)

3.5.1.1. Drought 5 occurrences

3.5.1.2. Epidemics 3 occurrences

3.5.1.3. Flood 2 occurrences

3.5.1.4. Storm 3 occurences

3.5.1.5. Wildfire 1 occurence

3.5.2. Affected Stability

3.5.2.1. Most sever drought affected 970,000 people (2001)

3.5.2.2. Storm in 1984 caused 54,152,000 US Dollars

3.5.3. Not Capable of handling sudden disasters.

3.5.4. Human impact

3.5.4.1. Swaziland has past mean sustainability reforms to help improve there environment including the National Forestry Programme and Forestry Legislation, and the drafting of the Action Plan for the implementation of the Stockholm Convention Persistent Organic Pollutants.

3.5.5. Drought

3.5.5.1. Droughts have been happening since 1983 and have occurred 4 more times since then. Recently they had 4 dry seasons in a row but a drought was only declared in 2007.

3.5.5.2. In order to offset the drought organizations such as the Methodist Church of Southern Africa as they provide food and basic medical care through local schools. The program will reach approximately 27,000 people with much-needed assistance.

3.6. Natural Resources

3.6.1. Primary Resources: Coal,Diamonds, Soft Drink concentrates and Sugar Cane

3.6.1.1. Sugar Cane is controlled by a private-sector employer

3.6.1.1.1. Harvested by setting fire to crops to remove dead leaves then is hand cut and bundled Harvested 52,000 acres in 2009

3.6.1.1.2. Sugar Cane is one of the biggest exports for the nation

3.6.1.2. Coal mine is controlled by Xstrata South Africa

3.6.1.2.1. Coal extracted by humans

3.6.1.2.2. Produces: 480,000 t/y

3.6.1.3. Dokolwako Diamond Mine Party controls Diamond mine.

3.6.1.3.1. Diamonds extracted by humans

3.6.1.3.2. Diamond industry is replacing their quarry stone business.

3.6.1.4. Coca-Cola Corporation owns a concentrate-manufacturing plant in the nation

3.6.1.4.1. Their profits don't help the average Swazi, most of the profit is taken by the King

3.6.2. Mostly undeveloped most people are still subsistence farmers and herders

3.7. Infrastructure

3.7.1. 3,000 kilometers (1,864 miles) of roads built mostly in 1997

3.7.2. Energy is produced from coal and hydropower and imports over 80 percent of its electricity from South Africa

3.7.3. There were 44,000 telephone main lines in use in 2010, in addition to 732,700 cellular phones.

3.7.4. Only 42% of the population has access to both safe drinking water and sewage

4. Social Factors

4.1. Health Care

4.1.1. Public Health Care with six national hospitals and more than 200 health centers and clinics.

4.1.2. There is a lack of medical staff. There are an estimated 122 nurses and doctors per 100,000 people (below the World Health Organizations Average)

4.1.3. Health care clinics and hospitals are further away in rural areas.

4.2. Culture

4.2.1. Ethnicities: African 97%, European 3%

4.2.2. Religion

4.2.2.1. Zionist 40% (a blend of Christianity and indigenous ancestral worship)

4.2.2.2. Roman Catholic 20%

4.2.2.3. Muslim 10%

4.2.2.4. 30% Anglican, Baha'i, Methodist, Mormon, Jewish

4.2.3. Languages

4.2.3.1. English (official, for government business)

4.2.3.2. siSwati (official) Cultural Language

4.2.4. Traditions

4.2.4.1. Reed Dance: Teenage Girls pay respect to Queen Mother. They where traditional grab. At the end of the ceremony King picks new wife from the dancers.

4.2.4.2. Incwala: or Kingship Ceremony is the most honorable event. The King and thousands of young men and warriors take part in various rituals, dances and songs

4.2.5. Historical Developments

4.2.5.1. 1907 - Swaziland becomes a British High Commission territory.

4.2.5.2. 1921- King Sobhuza II starts rule

4.2.5.3. 1968 - Swaziland is granted formal independence, within the Commonwealth, and adopts a new constitution. Authority is vested in the new parliament, a proportion of the members are nominated by the monarch.

4.2.5.4. 1964-Swaziland's first constitution enters into force.

4.2.5.5. 1973 - King Sobhuza suspends the constitution and bans political parties.

4.2.5.6. 1977 - The parliamentary system is abolished and replaced by traditional tribal communities.

4.2.5.7. 1982- King Sohuza II dies his son King Mswati III is Crowned

4.2.5.8. 1983 - The People's United Democratic Movement (Pudemo) is formed.

4.2.5.9. 1986- King Mswati III starts rule

4.2.5.10. 1996 - Pudemo announces a campaign of civil disobedience, citing the government's failure to respond to demands for a multi-party system and constitutional change. Strike action again takes place.

4.2.5.11. 2001 September - The king forbids men from sleeping with teenage girls for the next five years to help stem the Aids crisis.

4.2.5.12. 2004 March - UN Aids envoy says Swaziland has the world's highest rate of HIV infection.

4.2.5.13. 2005 July- King Mswati III ratified Swaziland's constitution

4.2.5.14. 2011 November - Swaziland is hit by a budget crisis described by the IMF as "critical", with the government struggling to pay the salaries of public sector workers.

4.2.6. Freedoms

4.2.6.1. Press: they have the right to freedom of press as long as they don't discuss things like politics. King has the right to suspend this freedom

4.2.6.2. Assembly:The law requires police consent to hold political meetings, marches, or demonstrations in a public place. Authorities continued to withhold permission for meetings sponsored by groups such as the Congress of South African Trade Unions

4.3. Education

4.3.1. Education is public and free. Since 1985 they have achieved Universal Primary Education and they strive to continue this status

4.3.2. Has a ten-year basic education program as part of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC) Protocol on Education. Seven years of primary education are followed by three years of lower secondary education.

4.3.3. The National Ministry of Education manages the curriculum, assessment procedures, and recruitment of teachers.

4.3.4. Funding: 7.8% of GDP (2008)

4.4. Population Demographics

4.4.1. Mortality Rates: 14.6 deaths/1,000 population

4.4.2. Literacy rates: 87% of the population

4.4.3. Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2011)

4.4.4. As of 2003 they where home to over 600 refugees from 12 different countries including Congo, Angola, Rwanda and Burundi. They ended the program as of 2008 do to lack of refugees

4.4.5. Public Health: Has the highest AIDS/HIV rates in the world at 25.9%. It is responsible for around 7,000 deaths per year. People also suffer schistosomiasis from unclean water, as well as bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever. All these disease have a high infection rate

4.4.6. Labor Force:457,900 people

4.4.6.1. 70% work in agriculture

4.4.7. Age Structure

4.4.7.1. 0-14 years: 37.8% (male 261,762/female 255,828)

4.4.7.2. 15-64 years: 58.6% (male 399,746/female 403,681)

4.4.7.3. 65 years and over: 3.6% (male 20,472/female 28,935)

4.4.8. Social Stratification

4.4.8.1. Large separation between the urban and rural population

4.4.8.2. Clans are ranked by their relationship to the king and heads of state

4.4.8.2.1. The Nkosi Dlamini clan, the royal clan and the highest

4.4.8.2.2. Clans described as "Bearers of Kings" (Queen Mothers) are the next highest ranking clans

4.4.9. Poverty Level

4.4.9.1. 69% live below poverty line

4.5. Crime

4.5.1. Crimes committed

4.5.1.1. Child Trafficing

4.5.1.1.1. Take them to South Africa where they get child grants

4.5.1.2. Protests by the People’s United Democratic Movement of Swaziland

4.5.1.2.1. They Government think they are trying to over throw them

4.5.1.3. Wildlife Crime

4.5.1.3.1. Harvesting ivory and Rhino Horn

4.5.1.4. Dagga Growing

4.5.1.4.1. Grown by farmers in the northern region one of the most potent forms of Marijuana in the world. They grow it as a way to make more money.

4.5.2. Prosecutions consistency

4.5.2.1. They are mostly consistent unless it involves the People's United Democratic Movement of Swaziland. The Government often finds reason to jail or prosecute them.

4.5.3. The Judaical System is corrupt because it is not Independent form the rest of the government so they can not be unbiase

4.5.4. The Royal Police is commanded by the King, and is the policing body of Swaziland

4.6. Domestic Conflicts

4.6.1. Peaceful Protest held by the People's United Democratic Movement of Swaziland. There goal is to totally liberate Swaziland from it's monarchy rule.

4.6.2. Social Unrest: Is caused by the Kings lavish spending habits for him and his wife when most of the Swazi people live in poverty

4.6.3. Grassroots movement: change existing legislation to prevent and respond sexual violence against young girls.

5. Technology

5.1. Telecommunications

5.1.1. Cell Phone:732,700 Users

5.1.1.1. They are all on the MTN Group a South African Carrier they which gives them coverage 90% of the country.

5.1.2. Land line:44,000 Users

5.1.2.1. Not as popular as cell phones

5.1.3. Satellite Tech: the Satellite company TS2 provides following services: two way internet broadband access, VSAT Private Network, broadcasting services and many more. Which allows access to the internet in even the deepest regions of Swaziland.

5.2. State wide access to technology

5.2.1. There are 90,100 internet users and it is free acess

5.2.2. 89 Automobiles per 1000 people

5.2.3. Electricity

5.2.3.1. Generates:470 million kWh using coal and hydropower

5.2.3.2. Imports:756 million kWh from South Africa and Mozambique

5.3. Nanotechnology

5.3.1. Swaziland Water Quality Management Center project is a proposal that Swaziland has constructed to create a treatment facility that purifies the water using Nanotechnology. No word on its Approval

5.3.2. Plans to open up a Biotechnology Park to grow the umhlabelo plant, a traditional plant specie highly potent in restoring broken bones. Is under way with German Scientists

5.4. Military Tech.

5.4.1. In 1999 it was reported that the South African manufacturer, Grintek, had sold some tactical radios and related equipment to Swaziland. Kenwood communication equipment (tactical handheld, vehicle and base station radio's)

5.4.2. Swaziland is not capable of nuclear weapons they don't even have heavy arment.

5.4.3. Tried to buy Cell phone monitoring equipment to tap cell phones of people trying to over throw the king.

6. Economic

6.1. Type of Economy

6.1.1. Capitalist

6.1.1.1. Large amounts of money goes to the King

6.2. Economic Diversity

6.2.1. They export soft drink concentrates, sugar, wood pulp, cotton yarn, textiles, refrigerators, citrus and canned fruit

6.2.2. They have a Heavy reliance on farming. The string of droughts have caused economic strain

6.3. Economic Policies

6.3.1. Started Negotiation with the United States for a Free Trade Agreement in 2003 but feel through.

6.3.2. Bank Relationships: works with CMA, SACU, SADC, AACB, COMESA, IMF, AU, World Bank, AfDB, BIS and SADC central banks

6.3.3. Regional trade Agreements

6.3.3.1. Southern African Customs Union

6.3.3.2. Southern African Development Community

6.3.4. Partnerships

6.3.4.1. United States

6.3.4.2. South Africa heavy reliance 90% of it's imports come from here and 60% of its exports go to South Africa

6.3.4.3. EU

6.3.4.4. Taiwan(textile factors)

6.3.5. Economy Strenght

6.3.5.1. It is the leading producer of Sugar and Sugar Cane products

6.3.5.2. It being the leader doesn't give it any real economic power

6.3.6. Economic Measures

6.3.6.1. Currency Exchange rate: one Iilangeni is worth 0.13 US Dollars

6.3.6.2. GDP: $3.65 Billion

6.3.6.3. GNP:$5.74 Billion

6.3.6.4. National Debt: $548 million. (31 Dec 2008)

6.3.6.5. They are experiencing a surplus in balance of trade the last record amount was in 2004 at E3,682m

6.3.6.6. Unemployment rate:40% in 2006

6.3.6.7. Inflation rate:4.5% (2010 est.)

6.4. Imports (Mostly form South Africa)

6.4.1. Food and live animals

6.4.1.1. Dependenice

6.4.2. Beverages and tobacco

6.4.3. Crude materials, inedible, except fuels

6.4.4. Mineral fuels, lubricants and related materials

6.4.5. Animal and vegetable oils, fats and waxes

6.4.6. Chemicals and related products, n.e.s.

6.4.7. Manufactured goods classified chiefly by material

6.4.7.1. Dependencie

6.4.8. Machinery and transport equipment

6.4.8.1. Dependencie

6.4.9. Miscellaneous manufactured articles

6.5. Exports (60% of exports go to South Africa)

6.5.1. Sugar and wood pulp

6.5.2. coal and quarry stone

6.5.3. Coca-Cola concentrate.

6.5.3.1. Supplies all of Africa

6.5.4. Textiles

6.6. Industries

6.6.1. Coca-Cola concentrate plant

6.6.2. 4 (Taiwanese-owned ) Textile Factories

6.6.3. sweets factory in Curbury

6.6.4. refrigerator production factors