Food Security

Chapter 10: Agriculture Project

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Food Security by Mind Map: Food Security

1. The state

1.1. Institutions

1.1.1. Governmental Governmental Institutions are key to build a great economy based on the primary sector Policies Certain policies don't offer incentives for diversification

1.1.2. Cultural Because of glass ceilings, women are pulled out of school in LDCs Women are pulled out to...

1.2. Development

1.2.1. MDCs More sustainable agriculture Better agronomical technology to feed more mouths Problems in agriculture stem from access to markets and overproduction

1.2.2. LDCs Food security problems are directly in correlation with rapid population growth More Subsistence agriculture leaves less food to those who are not farmers Limited Commercial agriculture is present to be spent to the market

1.3. Land & Cities

1.3.1. Land Use Weber Model Land or resources are right next to where they are processed and able to be consumed Von Thunen Model Land is concentrically used around the city which correlates with shelf life.

1.3.2. Cities Demand for food is higher in these areas

1.4. Labor

1.4.1. LDC Labor Farmers have to work land more intensively usually having children to work as laborers Land Clearance takes labor intensity due to a lack of modern machinery

1.4.2. MDC Labor Better agronomical practices allow for less labor and better, faster, stronger work to be done

2. Physical, social, and economic access at all times to safe and nutritious food sufficient to meet dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life

3. Sharar- Climate

3.1. Agriculture

3.1.1. Pastoral Nomadism Subsistence herd and domestic Developing Drylands of Asia and North Africa How do they secure their food? Are they secure? It's almost impossible to grow crops due to the dryness of these places, so they depend on mostly animal products by herding and domesticating to support themselves. Governments in Southwest Asia are attempting to relocate and confine pastoral nomads to use the land for other sedentary and more "efficient" cultural practices or to drill for oil, threatening security.

3.1.2. Shifting Cultivation Subsistence "slash and burn" Clear land by slashing vegetation and burning debris which releases the oxygen from the soil and allows the ashes to enrichen the soil, allowing for plants to grow Developing regions of Latin America, South-East Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa Communistic societies: the farmland belongs to the village rather than individual people Hurt Environment? Yes- Critics of Shifting Cultivation No- Supporters of Shifting Cultivation How do they secure food? Are they secure?

3.1.3. Wet Rice Dominant Intensive Subsistence Developing areas with dense, large populations in East and Southeast Asia Grown on small plots of land owned by one family, work intensively to provide for themselves Use human power only do they don't have to share the food they grow with animals China and India output 50% of the world's rice which is their most important crop How do they secure food? Are they secure?

3.1.4. Wet Rice not Dominant Intensive Subsistence Humans and animals do intensive work to provide for themselves Use crop rotation for efficiency Developing Interior land of India and Northwest China 1949 China installed communistic plots "agriculture communes" to promote efficiency How do they secure food? Are they secure?

3.1.5. Plantations Commercial Plethora of crops can be grown, usually specialize in 1-2 crops so the growing process is more efficient and can be sold commerically for a profit Plantations are so large and out of the way that food and housing must be provided for workers Work spread throughout the year to make efficient use of the labor force Developing tropics and subtropics of Latin America, Sub-Saharan Africa, and South & South-East Asia Developed regions of Southern US and Europe England Industrial Revolution 1760-1840 How do they secure food? Are they secure?

3.1.6. Mixed Crop and Livestock Commercial Sell crops to companies or agribusinesses to be sold commercially Crops are fed to the animals rather than humans Work is spread throughout the year Developed US Midwest and Central Europe How do they secure food? Are they secure?

3.1.7. Gardening and Fruit Farming Commericial Developed Southeastern US and Southeastern Australia Long, humid growing seasons allows for the growing of fruits and vegetables Low labor costs Immigrants hired because they are willing to work for low wages How do they secure food? Are they secure?

3.1.8. Dairy Farming Commercial Sold to wholesalers, then retailers, then consumers for a profit Developed population clusters of the US Northeast, Southeastern Canada, and Northwestern Europe Demand for dairy rises with urbanization In 2010 however, production of dairy farming in developing countries went up 53%, and India bevame the world's largest milk producer Milkshed Rig around an area/city that milk can be supplied before it spoils How do they secure food? Are they secure?

3.1.9. Grain Farming Commercial Dry areas of North Central US, South Central Canada, and Eastern Europe Wheat! India and China as Subsistence Recently became leading producers How do they secure food? Are they secure?

3.1.10. Mediterranean Agriculture Commercial Developed land surrounding he Mediterranean sea, Western US, Southern tip of Africa, and Chile Borders water= constant warm temperature year round California How do they secure food? Are htey secure?

3.1.11. Livestock Ranching Commercial Drylands of Western North America, Southeastern Latin America, Central Asia, Sub Saharan Africa, and the South Pacific. Developing China and Brazil also became leading producers of meat Ranching Commercial grazing of livestock over an extensive area In areas with dry conditions where the vegetation is too sparse and the soil is too poor for crops to grow US Over the years, changed from a nomadic style to fixed ranching Key part of the meat processing industry How do they secure food? are they secure?

4. Since 1800 the world population has grown from 1 billion to 7.7 billion today, and it still is drastically growing. By around 2067 the world will be expected to have a population of 13.3 billion

5. Desertification removes 70 million acres of land each year (about the size of Colorado)

6. Pizon- Population

6.1. Overpopulation

6.1.1. 20th Century Urbanization Farmers must grow enough food for themselves as well as a growing population of those (in urban areas) who cannot produce their own food. Farming Expansions

7. Diet - Wolfe

7.1. Dietary Energy Consumptions

7.1.1. Undernourishment vs. Obesity Those who consume less than the UN recommended 1900 Kcals per day are considered undernourished 99% of undernourished people reside in developing countries 1/4 of Sub-Saharan Africa 1/5 of South Asia Obesity is most often found in developed countries due to the ease of access and low cost of food products Per capita caloric intake is ~3600 Kcal in developed countries

7.1.2. Cereal grains - critical sources of food for nearly all people throughout history, as they are very calorically dense - a grass the yields grain for food Wheat Output of 4 million calories per acre Grown in relatively dry conditions Principal cereal grain of the developed world Historically significant part of European development - domesticated in Mesopotamia and played critical role in development of civilization there Rice Output of 11 million calories per acre Grown in tropical conditions Feeds developing populations of East and South Asia Domesticated in south Asia surrounding the development of the ancient indus river valley civilization

7.1.3. Maize Output of 15 million calories per acre Grown in semi-tropical conditions Principal food of much of Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America

7.2. In developed regions

7.2.1. A growing proportion of those in the developed world are overweight Only ~20% of income is spent on obtaining food

7.2.2. Dietary diversity is far greater due to access to long-distance trade routes that supply the wealthy with food from foreign climates Greater diversity leads to longer lifespans, better quality of life - higher HDI

7.3. In developing regions

7.3.1. A significant portion of per capita income is spent on obtaining food ~40% of income is spent on obtaining food

7.3.2. Food production is far more limited to what the environment can provide Less dietary diversity leads to more health problems with age and lower quality of life

7.4. Environmental/Cultural Factors

7.4.1. Climate ultimately influences what/where food is grown/consumed Agricultural techniques (see Climate) Diet variation

7.4.2. Environmental factors determine what is culturally preferred - folk culture Agricultural techniques (see Climate)

7.5. Diet - both the variety and the amount of food consumed by an individual