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introduction to pharmacology by Mind Map: introduction to pharmacology
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introduction to pharmacology

By: Mohammed Hamza Haneef

key terms


reducing the symptoms or the pain


adhesion of the molecules to the surface


capability of a drug to produce Emax


Dose required to produce 50% of Emax. The lesser the dose, the more potent

Therapeutic index

ration between LD50 and ED50.(margin of safety of a drug)

Effective dose ED50

dose required to produce desired effect in 50% of the population

Lethal dose LD50

dose required to kill 50% of the population

plasma half life

Time required for the concentration of a drug in the serum to drop by one half - also called serum half determines the rate of metabolism and execration.

elimination half life

Steady-state concentration

rate of elimination = rate of administration(equilibrium)- takes 5-7 half lives to achieve


organ system


cardiovascular pharmacology



techniques used





purpose of application







study of the adverse effects of a chemicals on living organisms

concepts, toxic substance, toxin, Paracelsus concept, drugs may have toxic side effects, management concept, groups at highest risk, children1-3 years, poisoning is the most common, not intentional, due to hyperactivity and curiosity, single substance and small amount, adolescence, intentional, large doses and multiple drugs, mortality and morbidity of poisoning is higher, common between the two groups, substance and amount are usually hard to obtain, keys to effective management, carful attention, supportive care

reversibility, depends on capacity of the tissue to regenerate, examples, liver, usually reversible, CNS, largely irreversible

classification, target organ, cardio toxic, hepatotoxic, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, use, pesticides, food additives, solvents, source, animal, plant, type of effect, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, lethality, extremely toxic, highly toxic, moderately toxic, slightly toxic, practically non toxic, relatively hermless, other, physical state, reactivity, chemical structure

duration of toxicity, acute, sub-acute, chronic


cost effectiveness of a drug


benefits and adverse effects of a drug on a population


variation in response due to genes


using drugs to active a therapeutic objective, Cure of infection, Mitigation of pain or fever, Prevention, Supplementation, General anesthesia

Rule of right, right drug, right patient, right does, right cost

SANE criteria, Safety, Affordability, Need, Efficacy, Preferred drug


use of genome to choose the best drug


deals with the action and effect of a drug; mechanism (action) of producing the effect

Action, types of actions, stimulation, adrenaline stimulates heart, pilocarpine stimulates salivary glands and GIT, depression, benzodiazepines depresses CNS, quinidine depresses the heart, both, acetylcholine, stimulates intestinal smooth muscle, depresses SA node in heart, inhibition, neostigmine and physostigmine, inhibit acetyl cholinesterase, Allopurino, inhibits xanthine oxidase, Acetazolamide, inhibits carbon anhydrase, NSAIDs, inhibits cyclooxygenase, Digoxin, inhibits Na-k ATPase, Theophylline, inhibits phosphodiesterase, replacement, levadopa, Parkinsonism, insulin, diabetes millitus, iron, anemia, Cytotoxic, anticancer drugs, antibiotics, Neutralization, charcoal and kaolin, adsorption, antacids, neutralize gastric acid, Chelating agents, forms complex with heavy metals, calcium disodium edetate, receptors, generalized receptors, enzymes, nucleic acids, DNA, specialized receptors, respond to, hormons, neurotransmitters, autoacoids, growth factors, examples, ion channels, proteins in plasma membrane, Targets, Molecular level, Cellular level, Tissuey level, systemic level, Affinity, Efficacy, classification of drugs, agonist, affinity and efficacy, maximal response, intrinsic activity = 1, partial agonist, affinity but partial efficacy, intrinsic activity between 0 and 1, both agonist and antagonist activity, examples, pindolol at beta receptors, pentazocine at meo receptors, inverse agonist, affinity and negative efficacy, intrinsic activity is -1, antagonis, affinity but no efficacy, intrinsic activity is 0, inhibitor or receptor blocker



Time course of drug concentration in bood

absorbtion, Routs of administration, Enteral, oral, gastric feeding tube, Parenteral, intravenous, Topical, Cream or lotion, eye drops, ear drops, enema, Inhalation, involves passage through, passive diffusion, filtration, active transport, facilitated diffusion, endocytosis, factors affecting absorption, physiological factors, Gastric emptying, Intestinal motility, Gastric pH, Food, Metabolism, Area of absorption surface, Gastro-intestinal blood flow, physiochemical factors, Particle size, Lipid solubility, Dosage form, Plasma protein binding, Bioavailability, None-intravenous administration, Absolute bioavailability, AUC oral / AUC i.v x 100%, compared to IV administration, Relative bioavailability, compared with a another formulation or standard, reduced due, inactivation within the GIT, Gastric acid, digestive enzymes, bacteria, First pass effect on the liver, intravenous, 100% bioavailability, Bioequivalence

distribution, rate-determening factors, cardiac output, regional blood flow, lipid solubility, binding to plasma protein, organs that receives most of the drug initially, brain, liver, kidney, binding to drug carriers, Albumin, acidic drugs, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, basic drugs, steroids, protase inhibitors, binding affinity, warfarin 99%, morphine 35%, lithium 0%

elimination, metabolism, if the drug is metabolized, it may be, activated, levodopa to dopmine, methyldopa to alpha-methyl nor adrenaline, maintained active, diazepam to desmethyl diazepam, amitriptyline to nortriptyline, digitoxin to digoxin, inactivated, phenytoin, alcohol, chloramphenicol, excretion, kidneys, urine, intestinal tract, bile and feces, breast milk, sweat, lungs