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Older Adult by Mind Map: Older Adult

1. Circulatory

1.1. Normal Age Related Changes

1.1.1. Aorta becomes dilated and enlongated

1.1.2. More prominent arteries in head, neck, and extremities

1.1.3. Valves become thicker and more rigid

1.1.4. Cardiac output decreases

1.1.5. Stroke volume decreases by 1% every year

1.1.6. Heart pigmented with lipofuscin granules

1.1.7. Less efficient O2 utilization

1.1.8. Resistance to peripheral blood flow increases by 1% each year

1.1.9. Blood pressure increases to compensate for increased peripheral resistance and decreased cardiac output

1.1.10. Less elasticity of valves

1.1.11. Thermoregulation alteration

1.1.11.1. Decrease CO

1.1.11.2. Vasoconstriction

1.1.11.3. Reduced peripheral circulation

1.2. Selected Conditions

1.2.1. Hypertension

1.2.1.1. Vasoconstriction

1.2.1.2. Hyperthyroidism, Parkinson's, Paget's, anemia, and thiamine deficiency

1.2.1.3. Atherosclerosis and plaques

1.2.1.4. Fatty diet and increased cholesterol

1.2.1.5. Increased sodium consumption

1.2.2. Hypotension

1.2.2.1. Decrease in baroreceptor sensitivity

1.2.2.2. intake of vasoactive medications

1.2.2.3. Blunting of baroreflex mediated heart rate

1.2.3. Congestive Heart Failure

1.2.3.1. Arteriosclerotic heart disease

1.2.3.2. MI treatment

1.2.3.2.1. thrombolytic agents

1.2.3.2.2. Deprived of O2 cause tissue damage

1.2.3.3. Coronary artery disease

1.2.3.4. Hypertension

1.2.3.5. Overstretched muscles

1.2.3.5.1. decreased cardiac output

1.2.3.5.2. overloading of ventricles

1.2.3.5.3. reduced ability of cross action of myosin and actin fibers

1.2.3.6. Increased volume remaining in ventricles after contraction

1.2.3.7. Hypertrophy of myocardial muscle

1.2.3.8. Atrophy of skeletal muscles

1.2.3.8.1. decreased tissue perfusion

1.2.4. Pulmonary Emboli

1.2.4.1. Immobilization

1.2.4.2. Malnourishment

1.2.4.3. Altered pain sensation may delay diagnosis

1.2.5. Angina

1.2.5.1. Myocardial ishemia

1.2.5.1.1. MI

1.2.5.1.2. Plaques and atheriosclerosis

1.2.5.2. CAD

1.2.5.2.1. Decreased perfusion

1.2.5.2.2. Increased resistance

1.2.5.2.3. Resistance to bloodflow

1.2.5.3. Atypical pain presentation

1.2.6. Myocardial Infaction

1.2.6.1. Atypical pain sensation

1.2.6.1.1. no pain may be present

1.2.6.2. Myocardial ischemia

1.2.6.2.1. hypertension

1.2.6.2.2. CAD

1.2.6.2.3. Atherosclerosis

1.2.7. Hyperlipidemia

1.2.7.1. Lipoprotein disorders

1.2.7.1.1. uncontrolled diabetes

1.2.7.1.2. hypothyroidism

1.2.7.1.3. uremia

1.2.7.1.4. nephrotic syndrome

1.2.7.1.5. corticosteroid use

1.2.7.1.6. thiazide diuretics

1.2.7.2. Increase in LDL

1.2.7.3. Decreased activity tolerance

1.2.7.3.1. Decreased exercising leads to accumulation of LDL

1.2.8. Atrial Fibrillation

1.2.8.1. Structural defects

1.2.8.2. Congenital abnormalities

1.2.8.3. Comorbidities

1.2.8.3.1. HTN

1.2.8.3.2. Ischemic heart disease

1.2.8.3.3. hyperlipidemia

1.2.8.3.4. CHF

1.2.8.3.5. Anemia

1.2.8.3.6. Arthritis

1.2.8.3.7. DM

1.2.8.3.8. CKD

1.2.9. Arteriosclerosis

1.2.9.1. Reduced elasticity of smaller vessels

1.2.9.2. Vasoconstriction

1.2.9.3. Decreased tissue perfusion

1.2.9.4. Increased activity intolerance

1.2.9.5. DM

1.2.10. Aneurysms

1.2.10.1. Advanced arteriosclerosis

1.2.10.2. Infection

1.2.10.3. Trauma

1.2.10.4. Syphilis

1.2.10.5. Abdominal aneurysm

1.2.10.5.1. pulsating mass

1.2.10.5.2. could develop a thrombus

1.2.11. Varicose Veins

1.2.11.1. Incompetent valves

1.2.11.2. Lack of exercise

1.2.11.3. Venous stasis and blood pooling

1.2.11.3.1. Jobs that require long periods of standing

1.2.11.4. Decreased elasticity and strength

2. Respiratory

2.1. Normal Age Related Changes

2.1.1. PO2 reduced as much as 15% between ages 20-80

2.1.2. Loss of elasticity and increased rigidity

2.1.3. Decreased ciliary action

2.1.4. Forced expiratory volume reduced

2.1.5. Blunting of cough and laryngeal reflexes

2.1.6. By age 90, 50% increase in residual capacity

2.1.7. Alveoli fewer in number and larger in size

2.1.8. Thoracic muscles more rigid

2.1.9. Reduced basilar inflation

2.2. Selected Conditions

2.2.1. COPD

2.2.1.1. Asthma

2.2.1.1.1. Places added stress on heart

2.2.1.1.2. Bronchiectasis

2.2.1.1.3. Higher mortality rate

2.2.1.2. Chronic Bronchitis

2.2.1.2.1. Persistent, productive cough

2.2.1.2.2. Wheezing

2.2.1.2.3. Recurrent Respiratory infections

2.2.1.2.4. SOB

2.2.1.2.5. Increased WOB d/t cold

2.2.1.2.6. Recurrent inflammation and mucus production in broncial tubes

2.2.1.3. Emphysema

2.2.1.3.1. distension of alveolar sacs

2.2.1.3.2. rupture of alveolar walls

2.2.1.3.3. destruction of alveolar capillary bed

2.2.1.3.4. Increased SOB not relieved with sitting up

2.2.1.3.5. Chronic cough

2.2.1.3.6. Anorexia and weight loss

2.2.1.3.7. CHF, malnutrition, and recurrent infections

2.2.2. Pneumonia

2.2.2.1. Causes

2.2.2.1.1. Poor chest expansion

2.2.2.1.2. High prevalence of respiratory illness

2.2.2.1.3. Lowered infection resistance

2.2.2.1.4. Reduced pharyngeal relfexes

2.2.2.1.5. Greater incidence of hospitilization

2.2.3. Lung Abscess

2.2.3.1. May result from pneumonia, TB, malignancy, or lung trauma

2.2.3.2. Aspiration of foreign material

3. Digestive

3.1. Normal Age Related Changes

3.1.1. Decreased taste sensation

3.1.2. Esophagus more dilated

3.1.3. Decreased esophageal motility

3.1.4. Reduced saliva and salivary ptyalin

3.1.5. Atrophy of gastric mucosa

3.1.6. Decreased stomach motility, hunger contractions, and emptying time

3.1.7. Less production of hydrochloric acid, pepsin, lipase, and pancreatic enzymes

3.1.8. Fewer cells on absorbing surface of intestines

3.1.9. Reduced intestinal blood flow

3.1.10. Slower peristalisis

3.1.11. Liver decreased in size

3.2. Selected Conditions

3.2.1. Dry Mouth/Xerostomia

3.2.1.1. medication use for other comorbidities

3.2.1.1.1. Diuretics

3.2.1.1.2. HTN

3.2.1.1.3. anti-inflammatories

3.2.1.1.4. antidipressants

3.2.1.2. Sjogren's Disease

3.2.1.3. Mouth breathing

3.2.1.4. Altered cognition

3.2.2. Dental Problems

3.2.2.1. Complicatoins

3.2.2.1.1. Poor PO intake

3.2.2.1.2. Constipation

3.2.2.1.3. Malnourishment

3.2.2.1.4. Socialization

3.2.2.2. Periodontal Disease

3.2.2.2.1. Predispose to systemic infection

3.2.2.3. Altered taste sensation

3.2.2.4. Poor Diet

3.2.2.4.1. Low Carbohydrate

3.2.2.4.2. Excessive sweet consumption

3.2.2.5. Cancer

3.2.2.5.1. White spots in the mouth

3.2.2.5.2. damages soft tissue surrounding teeth and supporting bones

3.2.3. Dysphagia

3.2.3.1. Impacts on esophagus

3.2.3.1.1. Deteriorated esophageal reflex

3.2.3.1.2. Widening of esophagus

3.2.3.1.3. Reduced muscle function

3.2.3.2. Impacts on nerves

3.2.3.2.1. Anything that inhibits innervation from cranial nerves

3.2.3.3. GERD

3.2.3.4. Stroke

3.2.4. Hiatal Hernia

3.2.4.1. Low fiber diet

3.2.4.2. Separation of muscles

3.2.4.2.1. Stomach or esophagus can slide through diaphragm muscles

3.2.5. Peptic Ulcer

3.2.5.1. Stress

3.2.5.2. Genetics

3.2.5.3. Diet

3.2.5.4. Complication of COPD

3.2.5.5. Decreased gastric mucosa

3.2.5.6. Increased consumption of irritants

3.2.5.6.1. Drugs

3.2.5.7. Decreased gastric emptying time

3.2.6. Cancer

3.2.6.1. Esophageal Cancer

3.2.6.1.1. Decreased esophageal protection

3.2.6.1.2. Smoking

3.2.6.1.3. Dip use

3.2.6.1.4. Barret's Esohpagus

3.2.6.1.5. Alcoholism

3.2.6.1.6. Dysphagia

3.2.6.1.7. GERD

3.2.6.2. Stomach Cancer

3.2.6.2.1. Cigarette smoking

3.2.6.2.2. Alcoholism

3.2.6.2.3. Poor socioeconomic groups

3.2.6.2.4. Decreased gastric emptying time

3.2.6.2.5. Decreased stomach mucosa

3.2.6.2.6. Enlarged liver and bleeding may occur

3.2.6.3. Colorectal Cancer

3.2.6.3.1. Increased risk with red meat consumption

3.2.6.3.2. Polyps and increased cell proliferation

3.2.6.4. Pancreatic Cancer

3.2.6.4.1. DNA changes in pancreatic cells

3.2.6.4.2. Weakening and slowing of pancreas

3.2.7. Diverticulitis

3.2.7.1. Constipation

3.2.7.2. Decreased peristalisis

3.2.7.3. Chronic inflammation and irritation

3.2.7.4. Decreased blood perfusion to bowel

3.2.7.5. low fiber and low residue diets

3.2.7.6. atrophy of intestinal wall muscles

3.2.8. Fecal Incontinence

3.2.8.1. Cognition alterations

3.2.8.2. Innervation and decreased sensory alterations

3.2.8.3. Reduced muscle strength

3.2.8.4. Impaired automacity of rectal sphincters

4. Endocrine

4.1. Normal Age Related Changes

4.1.1. Thyroid gland undergoes fibrosis, cell infiltration, and increased nodularity

4.1.1.1. lower BMR

4.1.1.2. Reduced radioactive iodine uptake

4.1.1.3. less thyrotropin secretion

4.1.2. Total serum iodine decreased

4.1.3. Loss of adrenal function

4.1.4. ACTH decreases

4.1.5. Aldosterone decreases

4.1.6. Pituitary gland decreases in size by 20%

4.1.7. Gonadal secretion declines

4.1.8. Decrease in FSH, TSH, luteinizing homrone, luteotropic hormone

4.1.9. Pancreas

4.1.9.1. Beta cells

4.1.9.1.1. delayed and insufficient release of insulin

4.1.9.2. Decreased tissue sensitivity to insulin

4.1.9.3. Decreased ability to metabolize glucose

4.2. Selected Conditions

4.2.1. Diabetes Mellitus

4.2.1.1. Glucose intolerance

4.2.1.2. Pancreatic decrease of insulin

4.2.1.3. Increased insulin resistance

4.2.1.4. Poor glucose metabolism

4.2.1.5. Orthostatic Hypotension

4.2.1.6. periodontal disease

4.2.1.7. stroke

4.2.1.8. gastric hypotony

4.2.1.9. impotence

4.2.1.10. neruopathy

4.2.1.11. confusion

4.2.1.12. glaucoma

4.2.1.13. Dupuytren's Contracture

4.2.1.14. infection

4.2.2. Hypothyroidism

4.2.2.1. Primary

4.2.2.1.1. Decreased T3/T4 and elevated TSH

4.2.2.2. Secondary

4.2.2.2.1. Decreased T3/T4 and decreased TSH

4.2.2.3. Depression

4.2.2.4. Periorbital edema

4.2.2.5. Cold intolerance

4.2.2.6. Coarse hair

4.2.2.7. Dry skin

4.2.2.8. Constipation

4.2.2.9. Puffy face

4.2.3. Hyperthyroidism

4.2.3.1. Primary

4.2.3.1.1. Elevated T3/T4 and decreased TSH

4.2.3.2. Secondary

4.2.3.2.1. Elevated T3/T4 and elevated TSH

4.2.3.3. Amiodarone

4.2.3.3.1. Cardiac drug that deposits iodine into tissue

4.2.3.3.2. Affects thyroid function

4.2.3.4. Diaphoresis

4.2.3.5. Heat intolerance

4.2.3.6. Diarrhea

4.2.3.7. Tachycardia

4.2.3.8. Palpitations

4.2.3.9. HTN

4.2.3.10. Hyperreflexia

5. Integumentary

5.1. Normal Age Related Changes

5.1.1. Flattening of dermal-epidermal junction

5.1.2. reduced thickness and vasularity of dermis

5.1.3. Slower epidermal proliferation

5.1.4. increased degeneration of elastin fibers

5.1.5. collagen fibers become coarser and more random

5.1.6. dermis

5.1.6.1. avascular

5.1.6.2. thinner

5.1.7. Appearance

5.1.7.1. skin

5.1.7.1.1. fine lines

5.1.7.1.2. wrinkles

5.1.7.1.3. sagging

5.1.7.1.4. easier breakdown

5.1.7.2. Hair

5.1.7.2.1. grays and thins

5.1.7.2.2. thicker ear and nose hair

5.1.7.2.3. facial hair may occur in women

5.1.7.2.4. slower growth rate

5.1.7.3. Nails

5.1.7.3.1. slower fingernail growth

5.1.7.3.2. more brittle

5.1.7.3.3. decreased lunula size

5.1.7.4. Perspiration

5.1.7.4.1. decreases

5.1.7.4.2. decreased sweat glands

5.1.8. Melanocytes

5.1.8.1. reduced by 10-20% each decade after 30 years

5.1.8.2. cluster and cause pigmentation or "age spots"

5.1.9. Skin immune response

5.1.9.1. more susceptible to infections

5.1.9.2. Decreases

5.1.10. Thermoregulation

5.1.10.1. Decreased subcutaneous tissue

5.1.10.2. Decreased apocrine glands

5.2. Selected Conditions

5.2.1. Pruritis

5.2.1.1. atrophic changes

5.2.1.2. dry skin

5.2.1.3. excessive bathing

5.2.1.4. dry heat

5.2.1.5. Comorbidities

5.2.1.5.1. DM

5.2.1.5.2. Arteriosclerosis

5.2.1.5.3. Hyperthyroidism

5.2.1.5.4. Ureia

5.2.1.5.5. Liver disease

5.2.1.5.6. cancer

5.2.1.5.7. pernicious anemia

5.2.1.5.8. psychiatric problems

5.2.2. Keratosis

5.2.2.1. small, light colored lesions

5.2.2.1.1. gray or brown

5.2.2.1.2. Keratin accumulation

5.2.2.2. Precancerous lesion

5.2.3. Seborrheic Keratosis

5.2.3.1. dark wart projections

5.2.3.2. Oily skin, sebaceous secretions

5.2.4. Skin Cancer

5.2.4.1. Basal Cell carcinoma

5.2.4.1.1. advanced age

5.2.4.1.2. sun exposure

5.2.4.1.3. UV radiation

5.2.4.1.4. Therapeutic radiation

5.2.4.1.5. commonly on the face

5.2.4.1.6. flesh colored moles with a pearly surface

5.2.4.2. Squamous Cell carcinoma

5.2.4.2.1. occurs on squamous cells

5.2.4.2.2. sun exposure

5.2.4.2.3. hydrocarbons

5.2.4.2.4. arsenic

5.2.4.2.5. radiation

5.2.4.2.6. Suppression of the immune system

5.2.4.2.7. Firm, skin colored or red nodules

5.2.4.3. Melanoma

5.2.4.3.1. tends to metastasize

5.2.4.3.2. Lentigo maligna melanoma

5.2.4.3.3. Superficial spreading melanoma

5.2.4.3.4. Nodular melanoma

5.2.5. Vascular lesions

5.2.5.1. Weakened walls of veins

5.2.5.2. Reduced ability of veins to respond to increased venous pressure

5.2.5.3. Obesity and genetics

5.2.5.4. Varicose veins

5.2.5.4.1. poor venous return

5.2.5.4.2. congestion

5.2.5.5. Stasis dermatitis

5.2.5.5.1. scratching

5.2.5.5.2. irritation

5.2.5.5.3. trauma

5.2.5.5.4. leads to formation of leg ulcers

5.2.6. Pressure injuries

5.2.6.1. skin breakdown

5.2.6.2. bony prominences

5.2.6.3. decreased subcutaenous fat

5.2.6.4. decreased skin elasticity

5.2.6.5. poor nutrition

5.2.6.6. reduced sensation and mobility

6. Immune

6.1. Normal Age Related Changes

6.1.1. Immunosenescence

6.1.1.1. depressed immune response

6.1.1.1.1. significant infection risk

6.1.1.1.2. Decreased response to vaccines

6.1.2. Thymic mass declines

6.1.2.1. serum levels almost undetectable

6.1.2.2. Decreased cell mediated immunity

6.1.2.3. T cell changes

6.1.2.3.1. T cell activity declines

6.1.2.3.2. More immature T cells present

6.1.2.3.3. Reactivation of the Herpes Zoster virus

6.1.2.3.4. Reactivation of mycobacterium tuberculosis

6.1.3. Atypical inflammation presentation

6.1.3.1. low grade fever

6.1.3.2. minimal pain

6.1.4. Increase in proinflammatory cytokines

6.2. Selected Conditions

6.2.1. Rheumatoid Arthritis

6.2.1.1. synovium becomes hypertrophied

6.2.1.2. projections of synovial tissue into joint cavity

6.2.1.3. Painful, stiff, swollen joints

6.2.1.4. Subcut nodules over bony prominences

6.2.1.5. Deforming flexion contractures

7. Musculoskeletal

7.1. Normal Age Related Changes

7.1.1. Muscular

7.1.1.1. Slight hip flexion

7.1.1.2. Impaired flexion and extension movements

7.1.1.3. Slight wrist flexion

7.1.1.4. Slight knee flexion

7.1.1.5. Decreases muscle mass and strength

7.1.1.6. Muscle tremors

7.1.1.6.1. Degeneration of extrapyramidal system

7.1.1.7. Tendons shrink and harden

7.1.1.7.1. Reflexes lessened in arms

7.1.2. Skeletal

7.1.2.1. Shortening of vertebrae

7.1.2.2. Slight kyphosis

7.1.2.3. Decrease in bone mass and bone mineral

7.1.2.4. Bones more brittle

7.1.2.5. Height decreases by 2 inches by 70 years

7.1.3. Thermoregulation

7.1.3.1. decreased shivering

7.1.3.2. reduced muscle mass

7.2. Selected Conditions

7.2.1. Osteoarthritis

7.2.1.1. deterioration and abrasion of joint cartilage

7.2.1.1.1. bone spurs

7.2.1.2. cartilage changes

7.2.1.2.1. disequilibrium between destructive and synthetic elements decreases homeostasis

7.2.1.3. Excessive use of joint

7.2.1.4. Lack of vitamin D and C

7.2.1.5. genetic facotrs

7.2.1.6. Acromegaly

7.2.2. Osteoporosis

7.2.2.1. metabolic disease of bone

7.2.2.2. demineralization of bone

7.2.2.2.1. decrease in mass and density

7.2.2.3. inadequate calcium intake

7.2.2.4. poor calcium absorption

7.2.2.5. inactivity or immobility

7.2.2.6. Cushing's syndrome

7.2.2.7. reduced anabolic sex hormones

7.2.2.8. Drugs

7.2.2.8.1. heparin

7.2.2.8.2. furosemide

7.2.2.8.3. corticosteroids

7.2.2.8.4. tetracycline

7.2.3. Gout

7.2.3.1. uric acid accumulates in blood

7.2.3.2. uric acid crystals deposit around joints

7.2.3.2.1. severe pain

7.2.3.2.2. tenderness

7.2.3.2.3. warmth

7.2.3.2.4. redness

7.2.3.2.5. swelling

8. Renal

8.1. Normal Age Related Changes

8.1.1. Decreased size of renal mass

8.1.2. Decreased tubular function

8.1.3. Decreased bladder capacity

8.1.4. Decreased in nephrons

8.1.5. GFR decreases by 50% by age 90

8.1.6. Renal blood flow decreases 53% by age 90

8.1.7. Weaker bladder muscles

8.2. Selected Conditions

8.2.1. UTI

8.2.1.1. Increased sexual intercourse in women

8.2.1.2. Increased urinary obstruction in men

8.2.1.2.1. BPH

8.2.1.3. Disease/Process that blocks urine flow

8.2.1.3.1. Urine stasis

8.2.1.3.2. Decreased sensation

8.2.1.4. Altered cognition

8.2.1.4.1. Decreased sensation

8.2.1.4.2. Decreased hygiene practices

8.2.2. Urinary Incontinence

8.2.2.1. Transient incontinence

8.2.2.1.1. From infections

8.2.2.1.2. Delirium

8.2.2.1.3. Medication reactions

8.2.2.1.4. Excessive urine production

8.2.2.1.5. Fecal impaction

8.2.2.1.6. Mood disorders

8.2.2.1.7. Impaired mobility

8.2.2.2. Established Incontinence

8.2.2.2.1. Stress incontinence

8.2.2.2.2. Urgency incontinence

8.2.2.2.3. Overflow incontinence

8.2.2.2.4. Neurogenic Reflex Incontinence

8.2.2.2.5. Functional incontinence

8.2.2.2.6. Mixed incontinence

8.2.3. Bladder cancer

8.2.3.1. Chronic bladder irritation

8.2.3.2. Cigarette smoking

8.2.3.3. Bladder infections

8.2.4. Renal Caliculi

8.2.4.1. immobilization

8.2.4.2. infection

8.2.4.3. pH or concentration changes of urine

8.2.4.4. chronic diarrhea

8.2.4.4.1. dehydration

8.2.4.5. dehydration

8.2.4.6. excessive elimination of uric acid

8.2.4.7. hypercalcemia

8.2.5. Glomerulonephritis

8.2.5.1. infection

8.2.5.2. oliguria

8.2.5.3. proteinuria

8.2.5.4. hematuria

8.2.5.5. causes cerebral edema

8.2.5.5.1. HA

8.2.5.5.2. HTN

8.2.5.5.3. convulsions

8.2.5.5.4. coma

8.2.5.5.5. aphasia

8.2.5.5.6. altered mental status

9. Reproductive

9.1. Normal Age Related Changes

9.1.1. Male

9.1.1.1. Fluid retaining capacity of seminal vesicles reduces

9.1.1.2. Possible reduction in sperm count

9.1.1.3. Venous and arterial sclerosis of penis

9.1.1.4. Prostate enlarges in most men

9.1.2. Female

9.1.2.1. Fallopian tubes atrophy and shorten

9.1.2.2. Ovaries become smaller and thicker

9.1.2.3. Cervix becomes smaller

9.1.2.4. Drier, less elastic vagina

9.1.2.5. Flattening of labia

9.1.2.6. Endocervial epithelium atrophies

9.1.2.7. Uterus becomes smaller in size

9.1.2.8. Endometrium atrophies

9.1.2.9. More alkaline vaginal environment

9.1.2.10. Loss of vulvar subcutaneous fat and hair

9.2. Selected Conditions

9.2.1. Female

9.2.1.1. Vaginitis

9.2.1.1.1. reduction in collagen

9.2.1.1.2. reduction in adipose tissue

9.2.1.1.3. shortening and narrowing of vaginal canal

9.2.1.1.4. decreased elasticity

9.2.1.1.5. decreased vaginal secretion

9.2.1.1.6. more alkaline vaginal pH

9.2.1.1.7. lower estrogen levels

9.2.1.1.8. increased fragility

9.2.1.2. Vaginal Cancer

9.2.1.2.1. Chronic irritation

9.2.1.2.2. wear a pessary

9.2.1.3. Cervical problems

9.2.1.3.1. Nabothian cysts

9.2.1.3.2. Cancer

9.2.1.4. Infections and tumors of the vulva

9.2.1.4.1. more fragile

9.2.1.4.2. more susceptible to irritation and infection

9.2.1.4.3. Could be a sign of

9.2.1.4.4. Senile vulvitis

9.2.1.4.5. Incontinence

9.2.1.4.6. Poor hygiene practices

9.2.1.5. Dyspareunia

9.2.1.5.1. accompanies hormonal changes

9.2.1.5.2. nulliparous women

9.2.1.5.3. vulvitis, vaginitis increase risk

9.2.1.6. Breast cancer

9.2.1.6.1. decreased fat tissue

9.2.1.6.2. atrophy of breast tissue

9.2.1.6.3. genetic link

9.2.2. Male

9.2.2.1. Erectile Dysfunction

9.2.2.1.1. alcoholism

9.2.2.1.2. diabetes

9.2.2.1.3. dyslipidemia

9.2.2.1.4. HTN

9.2.2.1.5. hypogonadism

9.2.2.1.6. MS

9.2.2.1.7. renal failure

9.2.2.1.8. spinal cord injury

9.2.2.1.9. thyroid conditions

9.2.2.1.10. medications

9.2.2.2. BPH

9.2.2.2.1. nocturia

9.2.2.2.2. bladder continence issues

9.2.2.2.3. kidney damage

9.2.2.2.4. hypertrophy of prostate gland

9.2.2.2.5. bladder wall loses elasticity

9.2.2.3. Cancer

9.2.2.3.1. from altered DNA in cells

10. Nervous

10.1. Normal Age Related Changes

10.1.1. Decreased brain weight

10.1.2. Decreased conduction velocity

10.1.3. Reduced blood flow to brain

10.1.4. Changes in sleep pattern

10.1.5. Slower response and reaction time

10.1.6. Sensory changes

10.1.6.1. Vision

10.1.6.1.1. More opaque lens

10.1.6.1.2. Decreased pupil size

10.1.6.1.3. More spherical cornea

10.1.6.1.4. Presbyopia

10.1.6.1.5. Narrowed visual field

10.1.6.1.6. Rhodopsin content in rods decrease

10.1.6.1.7. Decreased tear formation

10.1.6.2. Taste

10.1.6.2.1. Atrophy of tongue

10.1.6.2.2. Reduced saliva production

10.1.6.2.3. Salt detection most affected

10.1.6.3. Smell

10.1.6.3.1. Decrease sensory cells in nasal lining

10.1.6.3.2. Fewer cells in olfactory bulb

10.1.6.4. Hearing

10.1.6.4.1. Atrophy of hair cells of organ of corti

10.1.6.4.2. Tympanic membrane sclerosis and atrophy

10.1.6.4.3. Increased cerumen and concentration of keratin

10.1.6.4.4. Presbycusis

10.1.6.4.5. Equilibrium alteration

10.1.6.5. Touch

10.1.6.5.1. Reduction in tactile sensation

10.1.6.5.2. Reduced ability to sense pressure

10.1.6.5.3. Reduced ability to detect pain

10.1.6.5.4. Reduced discrimination of temperature

10.2. Selected Conditions

10.2.1. Parkinson's Disease

10.2.1.1. alteration in CNS

10.2.1.1.1. impaired function of basal ganglia

10.2.1.2. decreased dopamine levels

10.2.1.2.1. from death of substantia nigra

10.2.1.2.2. impairs smooth motor movement

10.2.1.3. causes

10.2.1.3.1. exposures to toxins

10.2.1.3.2. encephalitis

10.2.1.3.3. cerbrovascular disease

10.2.1.4. tremors and appearance of lewy bodies

10.2.1.4.1. tremor decreased with purposeful movement

10.2.1.5. muscle rigidity and weakness

10.2.1.5.1. drooling

10.2.1.5.2. dysphagia

10.2.1.5.3. slow speech

10.2.1.5.4. monotone foice

10.2.1.5.5. mask like appearance

10.2.1.5.6. bradykinesia

10.2.1.6. emotional instability

10.2.1.6.1. depression

10.2.1.6.2. anxiety

10.2.1.7. increased appetite

10.2.1.8. Sleep disturbances

10.2.2. TIA

10.2.2.1. Cause

10.2.2.1.1. Hyperextension or flexion of head

10.2.2.1.2. Drugs

10.2.2.1.3. cigarette smoking

10.2.2.2. Hemiparesis

10.2.2.3. Hemianesthesia

10.2.2.4. Aphasia

10.2.2.5. unilateral loss of vision

10.2.2.6. vertigo

10.2.2.7. diplopia

10.2.2.8. dysphagia

10.2.3. Vision

10.2.3.1. Cataracts

10.2.3.1.1. Cloudy lens

10.2.3.1.2. Loses transparency

10.2.3.1.3. exposure to Ultraviolet B

10.2.3.1.4. Diabetes

10.2.3.1.5. Smoking

10.2.3.1.6. Alcohol consumption

10.2.3.1.7. Eye injury

10.2.3.2. Glaucoma

10.2.3.2.1. Increased IOP

10.2.3.2.2. Damages optic nerve

10.2.3.2.3. Increased size of lens

10.2.3.2.4. Iritis

10.2.3.2.5. Allergy

10.2.3.2.6. Endocrine imbalance

10.2.3.2.7. emotional instability

10.2.3.2.8. Family hx

10.2.3.3. Macular Degeneration

10.2.3.3.1. injury

10.2.3.3.2. Infection

10.2.3.3.3. Central vision loss

10.2.3.3.4. Most of the age related changes affect this disease

10.2.3.4. Detached Retina

10.2.3.4.1. forward displacement of retina

10.2.3.4.2. Perception of spots

10.2.3.4.3. blurred vision

10.2.3.4.4. flashing of light

10.2.3.4.5. feeling that a coating is developing over the eye

10.2.3.4.6. progresses to complete loss of vision

10.2.3.5. Corneal Ulcer

10.2.3.5.1. inflammation of the cornea

10.2.3.5.2. loss of substance

10.2.3.5.3. CVA

10.2.4. CVA

10.2.4.1. Risks

10.2.4.1.1. DM

10.2.4.1.2. Arteriosclerosis

10.2.4.1.3. HTN

10.2.4.1.4. Gout

10.2.4.1.5. anemia

10.2.4.1.6. TIAs

10.2.4.1.7. MI

10.2.4.1.8. dehydration

10.2.4.1.9. smokers

10.2.4.2. Ischemic

10.2.4.2.1. From disrupted blood flow

10.2.4.3. Hemorrhagic

10.2.4.3.1. ruptured cerebral blood vessel

10.2.4.4. Drop Attack

10.2.4.5. Memory and behavioral changes

10.2.4.6. Hemiplegia

10.2.4.7. Aphasia

10.2.4.8. Hemianopsia