Modal Verbs

Modal verbs

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Modal Verbs by Mind Map: Modal Verbs

1. Won't/Would not

1.1. + Refusal

2. Obligation

2.1. Yes

2.1.1. Mustn't

2.1.1.1. Present, prohibition

2.1.2. Must

2.1.2.1. Present only

2.1.3. Have to

2.2. No

2.2.1. Needn't

2.2.2. Don't need to

2.2.3. Don't have to

3. Advice/ the right thing to do

3.1. Should (not)

3.2. Ought (not) to

4. Ability and Opportunity

4.1. Can

4.1.1. Present only

4.2. Be able to

4.3. Manage to

4.4. Could

4.4.1. Sometimes Could is the past of 'can', esp. with senses/ General ability in the past

4.5. Couldn't

4.5.1. Specific and general ability in the past

5. Deduction/ Certainty

5.1. Must

5.2. Can't

5.3. Should

5.4. must have/ can't have/ couldn't have

5.4.1. Past

5.5. Expectation

6. Permission and Requests

6.1. Can

6.2. Can't

6.2.1. No permission/ "Don't do this"

6.3. May

6.4. Could

6.4.1. Present request. Informal past permission, General

6.5. Couldn't

6.5.1. Question Tag request. Informal, no permission in the past

6.6. Be allowed to

7. Possibility

7.1. Could

7.2. Might

7.3. May

7.3.1. Also used for general possibility

7.4. Could have/ Might have/ May have

7.4.1. Past

7.5. Can

7.5.1. General possibility ony

8. Will/Would/ Won't / Would have

8.1. Conditional

8.2. Offer/ Promise

8.3. Future

8.4. Habits

8.5. State assumptions

8.6. Requests

8.7. Reported speech

9. Suggestions

9.1. Could

9.2. Might (want to)