Cell structure and function

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Cell structure and function by Mind Map: Cell structure and function

1. to digest macromolecules in the cells

2. recycling centre

3. Prokaryotic cells

3.1. Consist of bacteria and archeabacteria

3.2. no chromosom,only circular DNA stands

3.3. no nucleus

3.4. cell wall made by peptidoglycan

3.5. undego binary fusion

4. Eukaryotic cells

4.1. Consist plants,animals,funfi,slieme moulds,protozoa and algae

4.2. chromosome are present

4.3. have distinct nucleus

4.4. many membranous organelles

4.5. cell wall was made by cellulose

4.6. undergo mitosis and meiosis

5. Plant cells

5.1. have fixed shape

5.2. have cell wall

5.3. have vacuoles

5.3.1. maintaining turgidity of cells

5.4. have chloroplast

5.4.1. contain chloropyll for photosynthesis

5.5. food storage at starch

5.6. do not have centrioles

6. Animal cells

6.1. do not have fixed shape

6.2. do not have cell wall

6.3. do not have vacuoles

6.4. do not have chloroplast

6.5. food storage at  glycogen

6.6. have centrioles

7. Muscle tissues

7.1. smooth muscle

7.1.1. involuntary muscles

7.2. striated muscles

7.2.1. known as skeletal muscle

7.3. cardiac muscles

7.3.1. only found in heart

8. Epithelial tissues

8.1. squomous epithelium

8.2. cuboidal epithelium

8.3. columnar epithelium

8.4. sratified epithelium

8.4.1. stratified squamous

8.4.1.1. found in epidermis of skin and in the lining of the innermost layer of esophagus

8.4.2. sratified cuboidal

8.4.2.1. found in the excretory duct of sweat glands

8.4.3. stratified columnar

8.4.3.1. found in the secretory ducts of the mamary glands

8.5. pseudostratified epithelium

8.5.1. appear to be layer but layer do not exist

9. Cartilage

9.1. Hyaline cartilafge

9.1.1. most common form

9.2. Elastic cartilage

9.2.1. contains many elastic fibers giving int a yellowish color

9.3. Fibrous cartilage

9.3.1. contains a dense network of collagenn fibers

10. Bones

10.1. act as lever

10.1.1. converting muscle contraction into movement

10.2. Spongy bones

10.2.1. found in the center of flat bones and in the end of long bones

10.3. Compact bones

10.3.1. form by osteocytes located in the lacunae

11. Nerve tissues

11.1. neurones

11.1.1. a cell body

11.1.2. dendrites

11.1.3. the axon

11.2. neuroglial cells

12. Blood

12.1. Red blood cells ( Erythrocytes)

12.2. White blood cells ( Leukocytes )

12.2.1. Granulocytes

12.2.2. Neutrophils

12.2.3. eosinophils

12.2.4. Basophils

12.2.5. Agranulocytes

12.2.6. Lymphocytes

12.2.7. Monocytes

12.3. Platelets ( Trombocytes)

13. Cell wall

13.1. tough, rigid, thick non-living structure

13.2. give very difine shapes

13.3. Function:

13.3.1. maintaining the shape of the cells

13.3.2. providing strength and give mechanical support

13.3.3. maintains the turgidity of cells

13.3.4. allow exchange substance during homeostasis

13.3.5. an important reserve of carbohydrates

14. Plasma membrane

14.1. encloses the cytoplasm/protoplasm of the cells

14.2. provides shape and protection for cells

14.3. semi-permeable or selective permeable

14.4. protein are embedded in phospholipid bilayer

15. Cytoskeleton

15.1. made of filamentous protein networks and skeleton of the cells

15.2. microfilament

15.3. microtubules

15.4. intermediate filaments

16. Nucleus

16.1. largest and most prominent organelle

16.2. oval or sperical shape

16.3. store genetic material in the form of DNA

16.4. Nucleolus

16.4.1. to synthesize ribosomal RNA subunits for the synthesis of protein

17. Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER)

17.1. Rough endoplasmic reticulum(RER)

17.1.1. next to nucleus

17.1.2. synthesizing protein,modifying,packaging and transport of secretory proteins

17.2. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum(SER)

17.2.1. diverse metabolics activities

18. Golgi body

18.1. consist of a stack of flattened membranous sacs known as cisterinae

18.2. dark spherical bodies, recyling center of the cell

18.3. receives,stores,concetrate,modifies,finishes and sorts proteins

19. Ribosomes

19.1. small,solid, spherical granules

19.2. an assembly of two ribosomal RNA(rRNA) that are synthesizedd in nucleus

19.3. synthesized protein molecules

20. Lysosomes

20.1. contains hydrolytic enzymes

20.2. also digest the remains of dead organelle(autolysis process)

21. Mitocondria

21.1. bounded by two layerof membrane

21.2. the cristae partially divide by mitochondrial fluid called mitochondrial matrix

21.3. mitochondrial matrix contains enzymes, DNA and ribosomes

21.4. powerhouse of cell

21.4.1. energy production for the cell

22. Chloroplast

22.1. biconvex disc shape

22.2. have their own DNA, RNA and ribosomes

22.2.1. enclosed by two memmbranes separated by intermembrene space