Cell structure and function

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Cell structure and function by Mind Map: Cell structure and function

1. Blood

1.1. Red blood cells ( Erythrocytes)

1.2. White blood cells ( Leukocytes )

1.2.1. Granulocytes

1.2.2. Neutrophils

1.2.3. eosinophils

1.2.4. Basophils

1.2.5. Agranulocytes

1.2.6. Lymphocytes

1.2.7. Monocytes

1.3. Platelets ( Trombocytes)

2. Muscle tissues

2.1. smooth muscle

2.1.1. involuntary muscles

2.2. striated muscles

2.2.1. known as skeletal muscle

2.3. cardiac muscles

2.3.1. only found in heart

3. Epithelial tissues

3.1. squomous epithelium

3.2. cuboidal epithelium

3.3. columnar epithelium

3.4. sratified epithelium

3.4.1. stratified squamous found in epidermis of skin and in the lining of the innermost layer of esophagus

3.4.2. sratified cuboidal found in the excretory duct of sweat glands

3.4.3. stratified columnar found in the secretory ducts of the mamary glands

3.5. pseudostratified epithelium

3.5.1. appear to be layer but layer do not exist

4. Bones

4.1. act as lever

4.1.1. converting muscle contraction into movement

4.2. Spongy bones

4.2.1. found in the center of flat bones and in the end of long bones

4.3. Compact bones

4.3.1. form by osteocytes located in the lacunae

5. Nerve tissues

5.1. neurones

5.1.1. a cell body

5.1.2. dendrites

5.1.3. the axon

5.2. neuroglial cells

6. Plant cells

6.1. have fixed shape

6.2. have cell wall

6.3. have vacuoles

6.3.1. maintaining turgidity of cells

6.4. have chloroplast

6.4.1. contain chloropyll for photosynthesis

6.5. food storage at starch

6.6. do not have centrioles

7. Animal cells

7.1. do not have fixed shape

7.2. do not have cell wall

7.3. do not have vacuoles

7.4. do not have chloroplast

7.5. food storage at  glycogen

7.6. have centrioles

8. Eukaryotic cells

8.1. Consist plants,animals,funfi,slieme moulds,protozoa and algae

8.2. chromosome are present

8.3. have distinct nucleus

8.4. many membranous organelles

8.5. cell wall was made by cellulose

8.6. undergo mitosis and meiosis

9. Prokaryotic cells

9.1. Consist of bacteria and archeabacteria

9.2. no chromosom,only circular DNA stands

9.3. no nucleus

9.4. cell wall made by peptidoglycan

9.5. undego binary fusion

10. to digest macromolecules in the cells

11. recycling centre

12. Cell wall

12.1. tough, rigid, thick non-living structure

12.2. give very difine shapes

12.3. Function:

12.3.1. maintaining the shape of the cells

12.3.2. providing strength and give mechanical support

12.3.3. maintains the turgidity of cells

12.3.4. allow exchange substance during homeostasis

12.3.5. an important reserve of carbohydrates

13. Plasma membrane

13.1. encloses the cytoplasm/protoplasm of the cells

13.2. provides shape and protection for cells

13.3. semi-permeable or selective permeable

13.4. protein are embedded in phospholipid bilayer

14. Cytoskeleton

14.1. made of filamentous protein networks and skeleton of the cells

14.2. microfilament

14.3. microtubules

14.4. intermediate filaments

15. Nucleus

15.1. largest and most prominent organelle

15.2. oval or sperical shape

15.3. store genetic material in the form of DNA

15.4. Nucleolus

15.4.1. to synthesize ribosomal RNA subunits for the synthesis of protein

16. Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER)

16.1. Rough endoplasmic reticulum(RER)

16.1.1. next to nucleus

16.1.2. synthesizing protein,modifying,packaging and transport of secretory proteins

16.2. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum(SER)

16.2.1. diverse metabolics activities

17. Ribosomes

17.1. small,solid, spherical granules

17.2. an assembly of two ribosomal RNA(rRNA) that are synthesizedd in nucleus

17.3. synthesized protein molecules

18. Mitocondria

18.1. bounded by two layerof membrane

18.2. the cristae partially divide by mitochondrial fluid called mitochondrial matrix

18.3. mitochondrial matrix contains enzymes, DNA and ribosomes

18.4. powerhouse of cell

18.4.1. energy production for the cell

19. Chloroplast

19.1. biconvex disc shape

19.2. have their own DNA, RNA and ribosomes

19.2.1. enclosed by two memmbranes separated by intermembrene space

20. Lysosomes

20.1. contains hydrolytic enzymes

20.2. also digest the remains of dead organelle(autolysis process)

21. Golgi body

21.1. consist of a stack of flattened membranous sacs known as cisterinae

21.2. dark spherical bodies, recyling center of the cell

21.3. receives,stores,concetrate,modifies,finishes and sorts proteins

22. Cartilage

22.1. Hyaline cartilafge

22.1.1. most common form

22.2. Elastic cartilage

22.2.1. contains many elastic fibers giving int a yellowish color

22.3. Fibrous cartilage

22.3.1. contains a dense network of collagenn fibers