CHAPTER 5 : MOTIVATION by Raudzoh Radzi

MGT162 CHAPTER5 : MOTIVATION

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CHAPTER 5 : MOTIVATION by Raudzoh Radzi by Mind Map: CHAPTER 5 : MOTIVATION by Raudzoh Radzi

1. DEFINITION : A set of forces that causes people to behave in certains ways. -Gives purpose and direction to behavior.

2. Traditional Model

3. Human Relations Model

4. Human Resorces Model Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Y.

4.1. Theory X

4.1.1. Employees dislike work

4.1.2. Avoid responsible

4.1.3. Need to be directed

4.1.4. Must be forced to work

4.2. Theory Y

4.2.1. Employees want to work and can derive great deal of satisfaction fromwork

4.2.2. Seek responsibility

4.2.3. Self-directed

5. Need-Based Model

5.1. i. MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

5.1.1. 1. Physiological Needs -Managers assume that people work mainly for money and corcerned with comfort.

5.1.2. 2. Safety/Security Needs -Managers will often emphasize rules, job security and fringe benefits.

5.1.3. 3. Social/Affiliation Needs -Individuals value their work as an opportunity for establishing friendly interpersonal relationship.

5.1.4. 4. Esteem Needs -Managers needs try to foster employees' pride in their work and use public rewards and recognition for services.

5.1.5. 5. Self-Actualization Needs -Managers may involve employees in designing jobs or make special asignments that capitalize on employees unique skills.

5.2. ii. HERZBERG'S TWO-FACTOR THEORY

5.2.1. i. Motivator Factors -Related to job content

5.2.1.1. - Achievement -Recognition -Possibility of Growth -Advancement -Responsibility -Work Itself

5.2.2. ii. Hygiene Factors -Associated with the job context

5.2.2.1. -Salary -Job security -Supervision -Interpersonal Relationship -Company Policy and Administration

6. Process-Based Models

6.1. i. EXPECTANCY THEORY -Motivation to expend effort to do something.

6.1.1. Effort -The employee believes that effort will result in acceptable performance

6.1.2. EXPECTANCY

6.1.3. PERFORMANCE -The employees believes that acceptable performance will produce that desired reward.

6.1.4. INSTRUMENTALITY

6.1.5. REWARD -The employee values the reward

6.1.6. VALENCE

6.2. ii.EQUITY THEORY -Equity model focusses on an individual's feelings about how fairly he or she is treated in comparison with others.

6.2.1. How to make comparison?

6.2.1.1. 1. Self-inside 2.Self-outside 3.Other-inside 4.Other-outside

6.2.2. Outcome

6.2.2.1. A. Under-rewarded (Inequity) B. Equity C. Over-rewarded (Inequity)

6.2.3. Maintaining

6.2.3.1. -Change inputs -Change outcomes -Distort comparisons -Change the comparison -Quit the job

6.3. iii. GOAL SETTING (SMART criteria)

6.3.1. SPECIFIC

6.3.2. MEASURABLE

6.3.3. ACHIEVABLE

6.3.4. RELEVANT

6.3.5. TIME

6.4. iv. REINFORCEMENT THEORY

6.4.1. -Learn to repeat behaviors that are positively rewarded (reinforced) and avoid behaviors that are punished (not reinforced). -The application : called behavior modification because it involves changing r the behavior of someone else.

6.5. i.Increasing Desired Behavior

6.5.1. i. Positive Reinforcement -Positive and rewarding consequences. ii.Negative Reinforcement -Avoidance learning. Escape from an undesirable consequences.

6.6. ii. Decreasing Desired Behavior

6.6.1. i. Extinction -Withdrawal of the positive reward. ii. Punishment - Negative consequences following undesirable behavior.