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MITE 6330 - Tang Yuk Ha, Cha (2011871856) by Mind Map: MITE 6330 -
Tang Yuk Ha, Cha
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MITE 6330 - Tang Yuk Ha, Cha (2011871856)

Design of Learning/Instructional Products

Learning Technology Product

Educational Institutions, ICT in Class, Partly E-Learning, Flexible Learning, Distance Education, Education Staff Development

Commercial Environment, Solve Own Training Needs, Provide Specialized e-training, Development Digital Content for sale, Develop Custom Solution for a Client

Context for Development



Buy Exiting Product/Solution

E-Learning Design





Learning Technology Project Stages

"ADDIE" Model, Stage 1: Analysis, Needs assessment, Audience analysis, Technology analysis, Content analysis, Risk analysis, Stage 2: Design, Learning outcome, Detailed content analysis, Develop detailed flowchart, Develop storyboards, Develop evaluation tool, Stage 3: Development, Technical review, Design and test interface of the final product, Collect,design and develop media components, Author/Program the product, Integrate media comonents, Develop flow, Test execution, Deliver the prototype to small group of users to test features and user experience, Review outcomes of prototype application, Decide what needs improvements/changes, Develop final product, Stage 4: Implementation, Delivering the final product via appropriate channel, The final project is to be made ready for use by real users., Provide some training and related resources for user might be needed., Stage 5: Evaluation, Make sure the materials achieved the desired goals


Session 1

Part I: A History of Instructional Media

Part II: A History of Instructional Design

Session 2

Instructional Design & Learning Therory, Learning Theory, Behavoirism, Basics, Based on observable changes in behavior, Behaviorists, Pavlov (1849 - 1936), Thorndike (1987 - 1949), Watson (1878 - 1958), Skinner (1904 - 1990), In Learning Theory, Strengths, focuses on clear goal, respond automatically to the cues of that goal, weaknesses, Can not respond, Do not understand, Cognitivism, Basics, Based on the thought process behind the behavior, Three stage information Processing Model, New node, Behavirosts, Jean Piaget, Robert Gagne, Lev Vygotsky, Key Concepts, Three stage information Processing Model, Sensory Register, Short-Term Memory (STM), Long-Term Memory and Storage (LTM), Meaningful Effects, Serial Position Effects, Practice Effects, Transfer Effects, Interference Effects, Organization Effects, Levels of Processing Effects, State Dependent Effects, Schema Effects, Advance Organizers, In Learning Theories, Strengths, To do a task the same way to enable consistency, Weaknesses, Learns a way to accomplish a task, Constructivism, Basics, Based on the premise that we all construct our own perspective of the world, through individual experiences and schema, Realistic Constructivism, Radical Constructivism, Behavirosts, John Dewey, Jerome Bruner, Merrill, Lev Vygotsky, Seymour Papert, In Learning Theories, Strengths, Able to interpret multiple realities, Weaknesses, Lack of conformity causing problems

The Events of Instrunstion, Gagne's 9-events of Instruction, 1. Gain attention, 2. Describe the goal, 3. Stimulate recall of prior knowledge, 4. Present the material to be learned, 5. Provide guidance for learning, 6. Elicit performance "practice", 7. Provide informative feedback, 8. Assess performance test, 9. Enhance retention and transfer

Session 3

Writing Learning Outcomes, What are learning outcomes?, Learners new behaviours will be after a learning exprience, Why are learning outcomes important?, define the type and depth of learning students are expected to achieve, provide an object benchmark for formative, summative, and prior learning assessment, clearly communicate expectations to learners, clearly communicate graduates skills to prospective employers, define coherent units of learning that can be further subdivided or modularized for classroom or for the delivery modes, guide and organize the instructor and the learner, How to learning outcomes fit into goals?, Program aim and goals, course goals, Learning outcomes, sub-outcomes

The promise of multimedia learning: using the same instructional design methods across different media, Multimedia Learning, student can learn more deeply from well designed multimedia messages consisting of words and pictures, Design of multimedia, multimedia effect, student learn more deeply from words and pictures, coherence effect, better transfer when extraneous material is excluded, spatial contiguity effect, better transfer when printed words are placed near corresponding parts of graphics, personalization effect, better when words are in conversational style rather than formal style., Example, How a bicycle tire pump works, Verbal-only method, Positive side, clearly the dominant vehicle for delivering information, Negative side, based on an inadequate conception of how student learn, multimedia learning, Positive side, student receives an instructional message that is presented in two formats - words and pictures, adding pictures fosters deep learning for student learn, Negative side, adding pictures does not always improve learning, What is the promise of multimedia learning?, Goal, foster deeper learning in students, Designed, consistent with how people learn, can serve as aids to human learning, well - designed multimedia presentations than from traditional verbal-only messages, student learn more deeply, leads to problem - solving transfer, instructional message, Goal, foster meaningful learning, contains words and pictures, word:printed or spoken text, static graphics and dynamic graphics, cognitive theory, based on three assumptions, The dual channel assumption, humans possess separate information processing systems for visual and verbal representations, The Limited capacity assumption, the amount of processing that can take place within each information processing channel is extremely limited, The active learning assumption, meaningful learning occurs when learners engage in active cognitive processing including paying attention to relevant incoming words and pictures, instructional design methods, work across different media environments, Multimedia effect, with text and illustrations and narration and animation, Coherence effect, with text and illustrations and narration and animation, Contiguity effect, with text and illustrations and text and animation, Personalization effect, with animation and narration and animation and text

Session 4

A Model for Designing Constructivist Learning Environment, Jonassen's Model, Jonassen's Model Correlation with ADDIE, ADDIE, Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, Evaluation, Jonassen Mode, Steps 1-3, Steps 4-6 and A, B, C, Meaningful Learning, Constructivism, Is, how individuals create meaning and knowledge, by extending and modifying current personal knowledge and skills, Isn't, Constructivism isn't an approach to learning that can be outlined in a flowchart and applied the same way to all learning, over and over, Constructivism is not a specific approach to design — it's a way of thinking about design, What makes this model unique?, Constructivist models are inherently different, There is a lack of rigidity/adherence to specific learning principles, Modeling, coaching, and scaffolding support the learner, Coaching - process of motivating learners, analyzing performance, and providing feedback on the performacne, Scaffolding - a systematic approach to support the learner, Strengths? Weaknesses?, Strengths, Provides a framework for supporting learners, Emphasizes hands-on problem solving, Promotes using curricula customized to the students' prior knowledge, Weaknesses, Need access to, Information, Tools, Related Cases, Software, Support, Smith and Ragan say a danger with Constructivism would be in eliminating statements of goals and objectives, Smith and Ragan do not propose that their design mode is unqique, not enough consideration is given to the goal

Session 5

Teaching and Learning Online, Online Learning, Materials for online learning, Instructional forms of online learning materials, Information access, convey information alone to the learner, Interactive Learning, involve instructional elements that engage the learner, encourage reflection and decision making and provide feedback in response to learner action, Networked Learning, provide a means for the organisation, communication and exchange of ideas and information among learners and teacher and other parties in the learning process, email, bulletin boards, discussion forums, chat sessions, Materials Development, when the online setting is used as a means for learners to create and publish materials, web pages, stories, Frameworks for online learning setting, Components of Teaching and Learning Settings, Gerneral, Lectures, Group discussions, Learning events, communication, Self-study, individual projects, group projects, testing, Instructional forms and learning, Initial Knowledge, Advanced Knowledge, Expertise, Knowledge construction, Based on constructivist principles (Duffy & Cunningham, 1996), use the concept of a learning environment to describe the setting in which learning tasks place, Learning environment that support knowledge construction, Duffy & Knuth (1993) suggest that constructivist learning settings, provide experience in the knowledge construction process, provide experience in and appreciation for, multiple perspectives, embed learning in realistic and relevant contexts, encourage ownership and voice in the learning process, embed learning in social experience, encourage the use of multiple modes of representation, encourage self-awareness in the knowledge construction process, Lebow (1993) presents five principles, maintain a buffer between the learner and the potentially damaging effects of instructional practices, provide a context for learning that supports both autonomy and relatedness, embed the reasons for learning into the learning activity itself, support self-regulated learning by promoting skills and attitudes that enable the learner to assume increasing responsibility for the developmental restructuring process, strengthen the learner's tendency to engage in intentional learning processes, especially by encouraging the strategic exploration of errors, Savery & Duffy (1995) four principles, learning is an active and engaged process, learning is a process of constructing knowledge, learning function at a metacognitive level, learning involves social negotiation, Grabinger (1996) provide a succinct list of the assumptions of learning, people transfer learning with difficulty needing both content and context learning, learners are active constructors of knowledge, learning is cognitive and in a constant state of growth and evolution, learners bring their own needs and experiences to learning situations, skills and knowledge are best acquired within realistic contexts, assessment must take more realistic and holistic forms, The conventional art of instruction design is very well defines and many guidelines and models has been developed to the guide instructional designers (Dick & Garey, 1990, Gagne, Briggs & Wager, 1991), Electronic Performance support systems (EPSS), Hannafin, Hill and McCarthy(2001) argue that EPSS typically are comprised of Four main elements, Resources, Performance Contexts, Tools, Scaffolding, Instructional design for Web-based learning, Design element, Learning Tasks, in technology-based environments plays a fundamental role in determining learning outcomes (Wild & Quinn, 1997), Designing constructivist learning settings is a principal aim in most online development activities, Collaborative learning environments provide many opportunities for teaching and learning, create engaging and dynamic instructional settings, Learning Resources, for flexible technology based is seen by many teachers as the most important step in creating on-line learning environments, constructivist learning environment learners need to be exposed to content that provides them with perspectives from multitude of sources (Herrington & Oliver, 1995), content also needs to be chosen in a fashion which provides authentic examples and contexts (Duschatel (1997)), Learning Supports, Flexible and on-line learning environments need learning support to be design as integral parts of the learning process, Approaches to instructional Design, Resource-based learning, Many writer are critical of such on-line learning settings for the narrowness of the instructional approaches they use, Teacher-centred learning, make strong use of the communications facilities of the Web, Task-based learning, the framework derives from settings where the learning activities are the underpinning elements, Learning Setting that support knowledge construction, Learning Tasks, computer based feedback based on learner, tutorials, quizzes, simulations, worksheets, Other forms of learner activity with in-built support, teamwork, collaboration, tutorials, conferences, learning buddies and mentors, Learning resources, relevant resources, books, databases, papers, documents, articles, notes, manuals, scaffolded and supported, heuristics for tasks, problem solving strategies, templates, Learning suports, important suppots, course schedules, instructions for students, procedural descriptions, announcements and message given by the teacher, Learning Tasks, task-based learning design, learning tasks, content-based instructional design, 1. planning a sequence for instruction (content presentation and delivery), 2. deciding how learning will be assessed, activity-based instructional design, 1. planning a sequence for instruction (choosing a meaningful context for learning), 2. deciding how learning will be assessed, learning resources, content based approach, determination of the content, planning of the various section, task-based approach, determine how the learners will need to be supported to complete the activities, presentation, learning setting, content-based interfaces, the materials appear as a sequence of pages, activity-based interfaces, needs a logical place to provide access to the task the activities, a logical organisational strategy for the various types of learning resources, Planning learning tasks, typical forms of learning task, Inquiry tasks, Projects, Investigations, Problem solving steps by Jonassen(1997), 1. articulating the problem space and contextual constraints, 2. identifying and clarifying alternative opinions, positions and perspectives of stakeholders, 3. generation possible problem solution, 4. assessing the viability of alternative solutions by constructing arguments and articulating personal beliefs, 5. monitoring the problem space and solution options, 6. implementing and monitoring the solution options, 7. adapting the solution, Authentic tasks, Real-life versus in-school problem solving (lebow & Wager, 1994), Real-life, In-school, Authentic tasks are tasks that are similar to those that are faced in real lift, Authentic assessment, Assessment in online setting, assessment practices in on-line setting, Online Postings, to motivate learner participation and involvement in on line activities., Identity, useful to ensure the learners are those who are submitting the work, online teachers need to be alert to the possibility of plagiarism, Electronic submissions, will expect electronic feedback and support, to have processes to authenticate receival and dispatch of assignments and assignment feedback, Integrated assessment, provide learners with strong motivations to complete the various learning tasks, use of integrated forms of assessment provides reliable and valid means to determine achievement, Learning Resources, Content Pages, create text for online presentation, Page Index, graphics and images, elaborations, hyperlinks, information presentation, Making use of the media, the various media forms, Sound, video, Virtual reality, 3D models, Portable document format (pdf) file as information sources., Interactive learning resources, Tutorials, tutorial resource with checkbox interactions, learners can gain programmed feedback form the resources, activities involving dragging and dropping objects, using checkboxed to make selection form lists, entering text responses to questions, Interaction types, Java applets and Javascripts, quizzes, check box quiz questions, multiple choice quiz questions, Short answer questions, corsswords, simulations, a form of interactive learning with the potential to do far more than consolidate knowledge acquisition, learner are free to plan and carry out activities and to reflect on the outcome, useful forms of learning activity, Learning Supports, Online learning support strategies, Study Guides contained...., the course object, assessment activities, a planned learning schedule detailing learning activities and a schedule to follow, Learning Guides, teachers are designing courses that place more responsibility on the learner, courses that involve experiential learning and a capacity for self -direction in the learning process, Learning Contracts, technology requirements, nature of the learning design, course resourcing, roles and responsibilities of the learners, forms of learner support to be provided, anticipated workloads, Learning schedules, Supporting self-regulated learning, described as the process by which student activate sustain their thinking, their motivation in a systematic way to achieve their learning goals (Schunk & Zimmerman, 1994), Three main elements, Matacognition and self - concept, Self - monitoring and motivation, Volitional and Cognitive strategy formation, Social construction of knowledge, learning is both supported and enhanced through learning settings which encourage and enable communication and interaction among and between learner., two area of inquiry, socio-cognitive conflcit, component of Piaget's work describing interaction among peers, co-construction of knowledge, a. Groupwork and Collaboration, can be analysed and studies form a number of viewpoints, b. Successful Collaborative Group, there is large body of research which can be used to guide the information of groups to enhance the success of subsequent collaborative activity, c. Contexts for collaborative activity, set can have a considerable bearing on the way it is approached and undertaken by the learner, d. Cooperative learning in on-line settings, provide many opportunities for cooperative and collaborative learning through......, email, bulletin boards, real-time on-line communication in a number of way ranging from chatting, through voice communication to videoconferencing, Internet relay Chat(IRC), real-time audio, videoconferencing, audiographics, multipoint data conferencing, Learning scaffolds, develop learner knowledge bases and understanding through interactions is based on the social constructivist model of learning (Vygotsky, 1978), scaffolding, scaffolding supports (Grabinger & Dunlap 1996), teacher modelling behaviour, discussion of learning processes, stimulate and encourage their thinking, support each others learning, The concept of fading, tools and application as potential forms of scaffold for Web-based learning (Mcloughlin, Winnips & Oliver 2000), email for conversation, questioning and group dialogues, Frequently asked question, Hyperlinked resouces, Collaborative woekspaces, Online chat, Learning communities, will be able to experience some form of personal growth and in doing so help other to achieve the same goals, developing learning communities, discussion activites, online discussion are frequently used as a means to develop learner sense of community, Group projects, very useful online learning is communication and collaboration with other learner, Mentors and Buddies, provide learner with opportunities and reasons to work with mentors and experienced colleagues, learner buddies can share work with each other to gain peer feedback and critique, Learning Designs, Situated Learning, strong emphasis on bridging the gap between the theoretical learning that occurs in formal instruction of the classroom and the real-life application of the knowledge in the work environment, Characteristics (Herrington & Oliver, 2000), 1. Authentic context that reflects the way the knowledge will be used in real life, 2. Authentic activities, 3. Access to expert performances and the modeling of processes, 4. Multiple roles and perspectives, 5. Collaborative construction of knowledge, 6. Relfection, 7. Articulation, 8. Coaching and scaffolding, 9. authentic assessment, Problem-based learning (PBL), though student actions and activities in solving the problem, require student to engage cognitively and to demonstrate higher-order thinking, encourage learner in their attempts to solve the problems but not to provide solution, Case-based learning, provide in relatively fine details including..., the setting or context., the people, their roles and their goals, the sequence of events, results, discussion between results, goals and the means of achieving them, Project-based learning, activity that learner in the design and creation of products and artefacts, enables student to work meaningfully with knowledge and information tasks, characteristics, Integrated learning, enables the development of knowledge and understanding in ways that connect and link the information and content, Authentic tasks, enables tasks and activities to be realistic and relevant for the learners, Product and process oriented, student to apply their own investigative, planning, designing, evaluation and production strategies in the development of the artefact or product., Collaborative, project can be created that involve many forms of teamwork and collaboration., Inquiry-based learning, student are faced with open-ended task, student must formulate investigative questions, obtain original question, build the knowledge that enable them to answer the original question, emphasises research, critical thinking, as well mutidisciplined study to achieve course outline, Role-playing and simulations, use in educational context as a means to develop the affective components of a curriculum, for example, student beliefs, student attitudes, Three essential stages in the process (Chesler and Fox 1996), Preparation, Action, Evaluation, Design and Development Strategies, Learning Objects, design processes are now looking to maximise the reuse of learning material s, led to a number of reconsiderations in term of the design and development of on-line learning settings, reusable learning objects are now being seen as the fundamental component and building blocks of online learning courese, based on the use of reusable object taken from interconnected digital libraries (Ted Nelson(Nelson, 1965) and Roy Stringer (Stringer, 1992)), a. Leaning design and learning objects, focus on providing learning activities that bring about planned learning outcomes., a principal aim of the instructional design is to create student centred settings that support student development of self learning, metacognition and collaboration with other, Three component design framework, Learning tasks, Learning resources, learning suport, b. Reusable learning objects, create storage facilities and system to facilitate the discovery and reuse of object, specifying design characteristics for the development of learning objects, create system that will discover available learning object from repositories., c. Developing resources for reuse, support in design and development, customisation, flexible design, HTML standards, Plugins, accessibilty, accessibility, the needs of users operating in alternative contexts., physical disabilities, vision impairment, hear impairment, alternative learning needs, alternative platforms and delivery systems, limited bandwidth and technology, language difficulties, a. creating accessible content, images in web pages provides a useful context for considering accessibility, encourage the provision of a text equivalent of the image to make it accessible, b. Priority levels of accessibility, W3C - three Priority Levels, Priority 1, A web content developer must satisfy this checkpoint, Priority 2, A web content developer should satisfy this checkpoint, Priority 3, A web content developer may address this checkpoint, Metadate, provide quite powerful functionality for document, Organisation strategies for online learning sites, organised around interface based on metaphors, provide an organising framework for the resources and functions contained within a system, Metaphorical interface can provide very useful strategies for organising learning settings, based on contemporary learning designs and built around authentic context and tasks, Evaluating online learning settings, online learning evaluation instruments have been developed to serve a variety of function, attributes of effective online setting, 10 factors - Vaile (1999), 10 critical elements - Alley (2000), A framework for evaluation online learning settings, determination of critical elements within 3 main area, pedagogies, the learning activities which underpin the unit, a quality online unit operationalised contemporary theory and research into how people learn, resources, the content and information which are provided for the learner, in a quality online unit should be accessible as needed by the student in a non-linear format, delivery strategies, issues associated with the way in which the course is delivered to the learners, resources in a quality online unit should be accessible as needed by the student in a non-linear format, a quality online unit ensures that appropriate communication channels are available to student, use a variety of technologies to communicate and collaborate with each other and their teachers

Session 6 and 7

Searching for Learner - Centered, Constructivist, and Sociocultural Components of Collaborative Education Learning Tools, 3 models of mind, mind as computer, mind as brain, mind as rhizome, view of instruction in general and of collaborative learning tools, Learning as information processing, a cognitives skills appoach, provide for efficient communication of information and effective strategies for remembering, learning as experiential growth and pattern recognition, a cognitive constructivist approach, focus on experiences and activities that promote the individual development of the appropriate cognitive networks or mind maps, learning as a sociocultural dialogic activity, a social constructivist or sociocultural approach, provide opportunities for embedding learning in authentic tasks leading to participation in a community of practice, force new sectors, society to grapple with information access, transmission, collaboration, Computer-Supporting collabroative learning (CSCL), technologies for computer conferencing and collaboration, bringing student close to real-world environments and mentoring situations, Theoretical Perspectives on Collaborative Learning Tools, 3 general on collaborative learning tools, learner-centered instruction, constructivsm, Sociocultural theory, A Learner-Centered View on Collaborative Technology, 14 basic principle from the APA, Cognitive and Metacognitive Factors, 1. Nature of the learning process, 2. Goals of the learning process, 3. Construction of knowledge, 4. Strategic thinking, 5. Thinking about thinking, 6. Context of learning, Motivational and Affective Factors, 7. Motivational and emotional influences on learning, 8. Intrinsic motivation to learn, 9. Effects of motivation on effort, Developmental and Social Factors, 10. Developmental influences on learning, 11. Social influences on learning, Individual Differences, 12. Individual differences in learning, 13. Learning and diversity, 14. Standards and assessment, What does "learner-centered technology" look like?, technology-enhanced instructional setting, such as distance learning, offer special opportunities for implementing learner-centered principles and demonstration them in action, A Constructivist View on Collaborative Technology, Constructivism is recent perspective or philosophy on learning with ancient roots(von Glasersfeld, 1995), focus on individual constructions of knowledge discovered in interaction with the environment, Cognitive Constructivistic Teaching Practices and Principles, 1. Mind, 2. Raw Materials, 3. Student Autonomy, 4. Meaningfulness and Personal Motivation, 5. Conceptual Organization/ Cognitive Framing, 6. Prior knowledge and Misconceptions, 7. Quesioning, 8. Individual Exploration and Generating Connections, 9. Self-Regulated Learning, 10. Assessment, View learning as connection with and appropriation from sociocultural context, Soical Constructivistic Teaching Practices and Principle, 1. Mind, 2. Authentic Problems, 3. Team Choice and Common Interests, 4.Social dialogue and Elaboration, 5. Group Processing and Reflection, 6. Teacher Explanations, Support, and Demonstrations, 7. Multiple Viewpoints, 8. Collaboration and Negotiation, 9. Learning communities, 10. Assessment, Sociocultural Views on Collaborative Technology, Mediation, 10 key sociocultural teams and principles, individual learning and development, Sociocultual Theory and Principles for CSCL Environment, 1. Mediation, 2. Zones of Proximal Development (ZPD), 3. Internalization, 4. Cognitive apprenticeship, 5. Assisted Learing, 6. Teleapprenticship, 7. Scaffolded Learning, 8. Intersubjectivity, 9. Activity Setting as Unit of Analysis, 10. Distributed Intelligence in a Learning Community, Zones of Proximal Development (ZPD), Vygotsky defined the ZPD as the distance between a child's independent problem-solving level, obtained under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers, Internalization, occurred when processes first performed with others on a social plane are successfully executed by a learner in an independent learning activity, Cognitive apprenticeship, provided a rationale for at least six teacher methods, Modeling, coaching, scaffolding and fading, articulation, reflection, explorations, Assisted Learing, the focus on assisting learning, not directing it, 7 basic ways for teacher to "assist", modeling, feedback, contingency management, instructing, cognitive structuring, questioning, task structuring, Teleapprenticship, In merging the aforementioned strategies with global networking technologies for "teleapprenticeship", Scaffolded Learning, a mentor or guide provides the learner with the support or assistance necessary to complete a task that would not have been completed without the help, Intersubjectivity, a temporary shared collective understanding or common framework among learning participants, can more easily exchange idea, build new knowledge, and negotiate meanings, Activity Setting as Unit of Analysis, one can simultaneously begin to understand groups or individuals, products or processes, and cognition or cultures, activity settings, early literacy in the home, classroom learning, after-school computer play environments, even workplace settings. e.g.: navy vessels, focus of evaluation has shifted from individual mental functioning to groups of minds in interaction (Hutchins, 1993), Distributed Intelligence in a Learning Community, activity system includes..., subjects, rules, communities, objects, divisions of labor, create new forms of activity setting for both human-human and human-computer interaction and collaboration

Session 8

Web2.0 and Possibilities for Education Applications, is a metaphor for a spectrum of emerging novel internet applications, example, blogs, wikis, social spaces, podcasting, What is Web2.0?, become a topic that dominates discussions related to advances in the internet, Web2.0 is a meaningless "buzz" word, incremental progression of the internet to a new level enabled by growth in capabilities of software and hardware technologies., Read-Write Web, user to create information and contribute to the sites by publishing content (Gillmor, 2004; Richardson, 2006), two types of applications most widely use....., Blog, Wiki, Subscribing to Information, users subscribe to an information service and information is delivered to them when it becomes available, allows information to be pushed to subscribers, called, syndication feed, RSS, subscribe radio news program or podcast create by individual by using desk-top application, example, iTunes, Social Spaces, collective activities in a social space, Web 2.0 application's example, MySpace, in Web2.0, individuals can......, create, manage, publish information, publish resources, powerful form of web2.0, resources sharing, referencing system, allow people, add comment, provide recommendations, assign a number of stars to the resource, another interesting idea, Web2.0 promotes is the design of flexible system, able to "learn" and improve based on user' activities, The internet as a platform, signifies a gradual transformation of the internet into a platform, example, Google Docs, open source, an interesting phenomenon has emerged, from "Wikipedia", there has been a rise in open source materials, The Wide Spread of Web2.0, Data Analysis, millions of people across the world visit web2.0 sites, mainly of the wide spread, Youtube, MySpace, Wikipedia, Blogs, Education and Web2.0, certain based on the enormous number of Web2.0 internet users, E-learning 2.0, use of blogging in classroom (Nichani, 2006), attempts to use podcasting in teaching and learning (Duke University, n.d.), design learning management system based on Web2.0 (e.g. Nuvvo), emergence of first book dedicated entirely to web 2.0, Blogs, Podcasts, Other powerful web tools for Classroom (Richardson, 2006), Application of web2.0 in teaching and learning might further promote:, new forms of assessment, such as digital portfolios, use of Internet-mediated social learning spaces, and new forms of collaborative learning, new models and methods for design of learning object, new models for resources sharing and support for technology integration of communities of teachers, such as Youtube, new generations of learning management systems (LMS), contexts of two ongoing studies, use of a blog to support teaching and learning in a graduate university course, social space and repositories for teacher

Group Assignment

Share information

Google Doc, Cha Tang, Christine Cheng, Margaret Kwan, Josephine Lau

by email

Create the google sites

Project proposal (Draft)

Chinese Tea Online Class

Analysis Questionaire

Learning objectives and outcome

Gantt Chart

Flow chart


Content and Task Analysis

Design Specifications



Evaluation prototype

Project proposal (Competed)

updated all information on Google site

Additional Resources

Look for more information

Website, Learning Theory, Factors affecting Learning, Bloom (1956) Domains of learning objective, Cognitive: mental skills (Knowledge), Affective: growth in feelings or emotional areas (Attitude), Psychomotor: manual or physical skills (Skills), Smith and Ragan Model, suggest it is "A common Model of Instructional Design, The three major activities, Anslysis, Strategy Development, Evaluation, Case-Based Reasoning Meets Learning by Doing, Developing and Evaluating a Prototype, Interfaces to interactive multimedia learning environments, Participatory multimedia learning: Engaging learners, User Interface Design Tips, Techniques, and Principles, User Interface Design Framework


How to draw?, Mindmesister, Mind42

Software / Tools

Flash MX

Adobe inllustrator

Photoshop CX5

A free User Interface Design tool for Web Designers


Wiki - Wikipedia

ID Models and Analysis Stage

Instruction Design Models

1. Linear Model by Dick & Carey (1990)

2. Spiral Model by Romiszowski (1981)

3. Rapid Prototyping Model by Tripp & Bichelmeyer (1990)

4. Oval Model by Kemp (1985)

5. Top-to-Bottom Model by Braden (1996)

Learning Theory

Behavorism, Characteristics, Stimulus & Response, Mind as a Black Box, Mind processes not important, Focus on observable cause and effect relationship, Students remember and respond, Teachers present and provide practice and feedback

Cognitivism, Characteristics, Mind as an information processor, Mind representations and mental models, Short term, long term and working memory, Thinking involves manipulation of representations, Transfer of knowledge through cognitive strategies, Students remember rules,patterns and strategies

Constructivism, Charateristics, Knowledge us constructed through assimilation and accommodation, Knowledge is inseparable from knower, Learning is active process that involves personal discoveries, Social constructivism evolved from cognitive constructivism

Learning From Technology

Instructivist Models, Drill and Practice, Computer-based Tutorials, Intelligent tutorial systems, Gagne's 9-events of Instruction, Reusable Learning Objects

Constructivist Models, Learning environments, Technology as a tool in a learning activity, Inquiries and problem solving, Cognitive tolls, On-line collaboration and knowledge building, WebQuest and ActiveLesson, Interactive Learning Objects

Design Stage 1

Define a Goal(s)

Conduct Instructional Analysis (Performance,Task, Content Analysis)

Analysis of job description

Analysis of job-related documents

Observation of people at work, directly or via recordning

Discussion with people about specific jobs

Extrapolation of tasks from a customer's stated training needs

Analyze Learners and Context

Write Performance/Learning Objectives

used to guide the design process by describing precisely what the targeted learners should be able to do on completion of the learning experience.

Performance objectives

Instructional objectives

Behavioural objectives

Specific instructional objectives

Learning outcomes

Develop Assessment Strategy

Drill and Practice


Problem Solving


Develop Instructional Strategy

Arrange Instructional Events

Events of Instruction, Gaining Attention, Informing learner of the objective, Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning, Presenting the stimulus, Providing learning guidance, Eliciting performance, Providing feedback about performance, Assessing the performance, Enhancing retention and tranfer

CISCO RLO Strategy

Develop a set of Flowcharts

Design Stage 2

Develop a set of Flowcharts

Develop Storyboards

Reviewed by various people, Project team, Editor, A client, A content mater expert, A representative of a real user

Evaluated for..., content accuracy, appropriateness, completeness, coverage, Media, presentation, interface, interaction and treatment, Pedagogical quality / Instructional design, Technical issues

Write design specifications document

Project documentations often includes a Project Design Specifications

specifies features of the design, Screen area presentation, Authoring plathform, Quality and format of graphics, videos, audio, and other media, Pedagogical considerations

Review of key LTD frameworks

Multimedia Learning Theory (Mayer, 2003), Multimedia principle, The learning object should integrate visual and verbal information., Split-attention principle, Words and pictures should be physically and temporally integrated, Redundancy principle, the same information should not be presented in more than one format, Modality principle, words should be spoken rather than written, Segmenting principle, multimedia messages should be presented in student-paced segments, Pre-training principle, names and characteristics of main concepts should be familiar to students, Coherence, extraneous material should be excluded, Signaling, cues should be used to highlight the organization of the essential material

The Four-Component Instructional Design model (4C/ID-model), four components (van merroenboer.Clark & Croock.2002), Learning tasks, supportive information, just in time (JIT) information, part-task practice

Learning by Doing, Case-based Reasoning (Schank, Berman, & MacPhersoon, 1999), Goals, Mission, Cover story, Role, Activities, Resources, Feedback, Other models, Kolb Learning Cycle, Active Experimentation(Planning/trying our what you have learned), Concrete Experience(doing/having an experience), Reflective Observation (reviewing/reflecting on the experience), Abstract Conceptualization (concluding/learning from the experience), Dufour's "Learning by Doing", 1. Experience, 2. Share, 3. Process, 4. Generalize, 5. Apply

Resource-based learning (churchill, 2006; Oliver & Herrington, 2001; Hill & Hannafin, 2001), Four key components, Resources and Tools, Activity(Task), Evaluation, Support

Jonassen's Constructivist Learning Environment, useful tool for considering participative learning, in order to be effective, must also meet the criteria of a well-established Constructist Learning Environment (CLE), Classifies problems, Logical problems, Algorithms, Story problems, Rule-Using Problems, Decision-Making Problems, Troubleshooting Problems, Diagnosis-Solution problems, Strategic Performance, Situated Case-Policy Problems, Design Problems, Dilemmas

A structured Courseware Package Design

1. Opening

2. Content Presentation

3. Programmed Instructions

4. Quiz/Test

5. Record of Results

Developing and Evaluating a Prototype

What is a prototype?

A working model and a representation of the final project

provides sufficient information to allow a client and the team to have glimpse into the final product

used as important evolution tool


interface design, layout, size of display area, resolution, color

interaction design, Buttons, Hot-sport areas, Clickable objects, Key press and shortcuts, Pull-down menus, Text entry, Drag and drop, Sliders, Dialer, Check boxes, radio boxes, lists, Haptic devices

Presentation design, information design, diagrams, icons, symbols, images & photographs, tables & graphs, metaphors & analogies, spaces & lines, General treatments, Media design, Typography

Prototype Evaluation

By client

By real users

By design team

By development team

There must be some kind of sign-off

Some name to look for....

Don Norman, design of everyday things

Ben Shneiderman, Human Computer Interaction laboratory

Jocob Nielsen, Usability

Web 2.0 Learning Technologies

What is Web2.0

User control of infromation

New forms of expression

Web as a point of presence

Internet-mediated social/collective activities

Web as a platform

Rich user experiences

Media revolution - "we are media" (Dan Gillmor), "voice of crowds"

Collection of Web2.0 sites



web-based publication

No technical skills to create

Blog can contain......, text, media, links

There are blogs, mob-logs, v-logs, audi-log

blogsphere is a community of bloggers

Blog tools, Picasa, Blogger, Google

New Forms, not only about text, power of the "citizen journalism"


is social sofware, allows collaborative development of an article of common interest to its authors

tool, Wikipedia, one of the most visited website

Social Bookmarking and Social Repositories

Example, Risal, TouTube, fickr

RSS Feeds and Aggregators

RSS = Really Simple Syndication

History, This originated with news and blog sites

a form of syndication in which a section of website is made available for other sites to use

provide an updated list of content form a site

Aggregator can subscribe to a feed,check for new content at user-determined intervals, and retrieve the content


distributing audio programs or video over the internet for playback

using either the RSS or Atom syndication formats

Example, iTunes 7

Social Networking



web as a platform


Google Docs & Spreadsheets

Mobile Web2.0

web services are moving to mobile

example, PSP, iphone