Drug Classification

Navigating the confusing world of Drug Classification - Created for Physical Therapy students in the Doctoral Program at Marshall University

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Drug Classification by Mind Map: Drug Classification

1. Pharmacologic Classification

1.1. Similar Characteristics

1.1.1. Same Indications

1.1.2. Same Mechanism of Action, e.g. >> Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACE-I) tell you exactly how they work Inhibit the enzyme that converts Angiotensin I to Angiotensin II

1.1.3. Same Contraindications, & Precautions

1.1.4. Same Interactions

1.1.5. Same Adverse Reactions & Side-effects

1.2. Similar Chemical Make-up

1.3. Pharmacologic Class is necessary when determining treatment action >>

1.3.1. A Doctor might say >> "An ACE-inhibitor is more desirable than a beta-blocker" "Your heart won't race as much because the beta-blocker prevents autonomic receptors in the heart from being stimulated"

1.4. Clues to identifying if Pharmacologic Class is being used to describe the drugs

1.4.1. Generic Names of Drugs in same Pharmacologic Class OFTEN (not always) have the same SUFFIX. e.g. >> Beta-blockers (therapeutic class Anti-hypertensives) - end in "-olol". e.g.: Propranolol, Atenolol ACE-Inhibitors (therapeutic class Anti-hypertensives) - end in "-pril". e.g. Enalapril, Benazepril, Captopril, Ramipril, etc. Benzodiazepines (therapeutic class Sedative-Hypnotics), - end in "-epams" Or, "-zolams" - e.g. Diazepam, Midazolam, etc. Monoclonal Antibodies end in "-mab" e.g. Rituximab

1.5. Drugs of same pharmacologic class differ in the following ways

1.5.1. Dosage

1.5.2. Time Action Profile

1.5.3. Availability

1.6. Examples:

1.6.1. Penicillins

1.6.2. Beta-blockers

1.6.3. ACE-Inhibitors

1.6.4. Others

2. Therapeutic Classification

2.1. Broad categories used for Similar Therapeutic Effect

2.2. May NOT have similar chemical make-up

2.3. Have different Mechanisms-of-Action even though they may target the same end-effect

2.4. Therapeutic Classes include many pharmacologic classes

2.4.1. e.g. The therapeutic class Anti-hypertensives, has at least 13 Pharmacologic classes

2.5. Therapeutic Class is useful when speaking of drugs in a "general way" - see examples

2.5.1. "Antihypetensives save lives"

2.5.2. "You will need anti-anginal medication"

2.6. Examples:

2.6.1. Anti-hypertensives

2.6.2. Anti-anginals

2.6.3. Sedatives, Hypnotics, Anxiolytics

2.6.4. Antibiotics

2.6.5. Anti-hemorrhoid drugs

2.6.6. Topical Antibiotics

2.6.7. Cough Suppressants

2.6.8. Analgesics Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Opioids

2.6.9. Antiseptics

2.6.10. Others

3. Allopathic Drugs

3.1. Non-Prescription Drugs (OTC)

3.2. Prescription Drugs

4. Herbal Drugs

5. Homeopathic Drugs

6. Schedule of Controlled Substances

7. Typically we use one, or both of these in the Classification conventions

8. Based on Primary Target System

8.1. CNS Drugs

8.1.1. CNS Stimulants Used in disorders where CNS is naturally depressed

8.1.2. CNS Depressants CNS hyperactive disorders Pain Relief

8.2. Autonomic Drugs

8.2.1. Cardiac Drugs Agonists Drugs Positive Inotropy Positive Chronotropy Positive Dromotropy Antagonist Drugs Negative Inotropy Negative Chronotropy Negative Dromotropy

8.2.2. Pulmonary Drugs Agonist Drugs Bronchodilation Cough Suppression Increased Expectoration Antagonist Drugs No real Pharmacologic Benefit so not used

8.3. Musculoskeletal Drugs

8.3.1. Modifies Natural Metabolic Pathways (NSAIDS, & CSIs) - see mind map at this link Pain Relief that assists with Exercise & Mobility Accidental Minor Injuries with low bleeding or low risk of bleeding Degenerative Joint Diseases

8.3.2. CNS Stimulants (Opioids) - see mind map at this link Muscle Relaxation Pain Relief by Alteration of Consciousness

8.3.3. Blocks Nerve Pathways (See Anesthetic Agents - especially local nerve blocks) - see mind map at this link Skeletal Muscle Relaxants Pain Medications

8.3.4. Receptor Antagonists (Blocks Motor End-plates in Muscles - Neuromuscular Blocking Agents or NMBAs - see mind map at this link Muscle Relaxation

8.4. Gastrointestinal Drugs

8.4.1. Anti-Acidity Antacids H2-Receptor Antagonists PPIs

8.4.2. Anti-Diarrheals

8.4.3. Laxatives

8.5. Endocrine Drugs

8.5.1. Drugs for Diabetes

8.5.2. Others

8.6. Antibiotics

8.6.1. Many Pharmacologic Groups

8.7. Chemotherapy Drugs

8.7.1. Many Pharmacologic Groups

9. Start here