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Environmental by Mind Map: Environmental

1. Soil

1.1. What is it?

1.1.1. What plants grow in

1.1.2. Loose materials Earth’s surface Above the solid rock

1.1.3. Topmost layer Earth’s crust Most important part

1.2. Thickness

1.2.1. Varies from place to place Hot wet tropics Rocks are weathered and broken down

1.3. Three layers

1.3.1. Horizons Top soil A horizon Subsoil B horizon Weathered bedrock C horizon

1.4. Composition

1.4.1. Organic matter Living plants Animals Dead remains Waste Small proportion Very important Material Falling leaves Litter

1.4.2. Mineral matter Silt Largest proportion of soil Mainly

1.4.3. Water

1.4.4. Layers of organic matter at the soil surface Fresh littercones, twigs, leaves Humification layer: humus black-to-brown Humus and mineral soil dark grey

1.4.5. Potassium ions (K) Respiration Photosynthesis

1.4.6. Air

1.5. Different types of agriculture

1.5.1. Arable Crops are grown Padi Wet rice

1.5.2. Pastoral Animals

1.5.3. Mixed Livestock

1.5.4. Crops

1.5.5. Tropical plantation

1.5.6. Commercial Produced to be sold Concentrate South America Bananas Pineapples Coffe Pastoral farms One type of animal is kept

1.5.7. Subsistence Different from comercial family Grow food crops Needs Example Most traditional one Targeted to survival

1.6. Agricultural techniques to increase yields

1.6.1. Farming output Increase to keep pace Growth in world population

1.7. Plant growth

1.7.1. Minerals Healthy growth Absorbed through the roots Mineral ions Particles Weathering Distinguished Particle size Nitrogen Nitrate ions (NO3) Phosphorus Phosphate ions (PO3) Potassium

2. Fermentation layer: decay dark brown