Environmental

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Environmental by Mind Map: Environmental

1. Soil

1.1. What is it?

1.1.1. What plants grow in

1.1.2. Loose materials

1.1.2.1. Earth’s surface

1.1.2.1.1. Above the solid rock

1.1.3. Topmost layer

1.1.3.1. Earth’s crust

1.1.3.1.1. Most important part

1.2. Thickness

1.2.1. Varies from place to place

1.2.1.1. Hot wet tropics

1.2.1.1.1. Rocks are weathered and broken down

1.3. Three layers

1.3.1. Horizons

1.3.1.1. Top soil

1.3.1.1.1. A horizon

1.3.1.2. Subsoil

1.3.1.2.1. B horizon

1.3.1.3. Weathered bedrock

1.3.1.3.1. C horizon

1.4. Composition

1.4.1. Organic matter

1.4.1.1. Living plants

1.4.1.2. Animals

1.4.1.3. Dead remains

1.4.1.4. Waste

1.4.1.5. Small proportion

1.4.1.5.1. Very important

1.4.1.6. Material

1.4.1.6.1. Falling leaves

1.4.1.6.2. Litter

1.4.2. Mineral matter

1.4.2.1. Silt

1.4.2.2. Largest proportion of soil

1.4.2.2.1. Mainly

1.4.3. Water

1.4.4. Layers of organic matter at the soil surface

1.4.4.1. Fresh littercones, twigs, leaves

1.4.4.2. Humification layer: humus black-to-brown

1.4.4.3. Humus and mineral soil dark grey

1.4.5. Potassium ions (K)

1.4.5.1. Respiration

1.4.5.2. Photosynthesis

1.4.6. Air

1.5. Different types of agriculture

1.5.1. Arable

1.5.1.1. Crops are grown

1.5.1.2. Padi

1.5.1.2.1. Wet rice

1.5.2. Pastoral

1.5.2.1. Animals

1.5.3. Mixed

1.5.3.1. Livestock

1.5.4. Crops

1.5.5. Tropical plantation

1.5.6. Commercial

1.5.6.1. Produced to be sold

1.5.6.1.1. Concentrate

1.5.6.2. South America

1.5.6.2.1. Bananas

1.5.6.2.2. Pineapples

1.5.6.2.3. Coffe

1.5.6.3. Pastoral farms

1.5.6.3.1. One type of animal is kept

1.5.7. Subsistence

1.5.7.1. Different from comercial family

1.5.7.2. Grow food crops

1.5.7.2.1. Needs

1.5.7.3. Example

1.5.7.3.1. Most traditional one

1.5.7.4. Targeted to survival

1.6. Agricultural techniques to increase yields

1.6.1. Farming output

1.6.1.1. Increase to keep pace

1.6.1.1.1. Growth in world population

1.7. Plant growth

1.7.1. Minerals

1.7.1.1. Healthy growth

1.7.1.2. Absorbed through the roots

1.7.1.2.1. Mineral ions

1.7.1.3. Particles

1.7.1.3.1. Weathering

1.7.1.4. Distinguished

1.7.1.4.1. Particle size

1.7.1.5. Nitrogen

1.7.1.5.1. Nitrate ions (NO3)

1.7.1.6. Phosphorus

1.7.1.6.1. Phosphate ions (PO3)

1.7.1.7. Potassium

2. Fermentation layer: decay dark brown