Biomes and natural environments (1)

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Biomes and natural environments (1) by Mind Map: Biomes and natural environments (1)

1. Tropical rainforest

1.1. Characterisitcs

1.1.1. Climate The climate of a rainforest is humid and warm. Very wet with over 2,000 mm of rainfall per year. Very warm with an average daily temperature of 28°C. The temperature never drops below 20°C and rarely exceeds 35°C. The atmosphere is hot and humid. The climate is consistent all year round. There are no seasons

1.1.2. Ecosystem

1.1.3. Biome distribution with examples

1.2. Threats to the biome

1.2.1. Local causes and impacts A good example is

1.2.2. Deforestation - animals dying, lack of food and space, man-caused fires - co2 emissions and stopping oxygen production from trees.

1.2.3. Regional and national causes and impacts

1.2.4. Global causes and impacts Cattle ranching counts for 60% of the total deforestation percentage in the tropical rainforests. People destroy a good portion of the tropical rainforests to have space to build farms and cattle but these farms take a lot of space so a good amount of area must be cutted and cleaned to build these farms.

1.3. Management response to reduce threats on the biome

1.3.1. Protecting threatened species will help create a healthy and balanced ecosystem within tropical rainforest areas.

1.3.2. Promoting sustainable choices to oneself and others will form healthy habits that will support not only your body but also the health of rainforests. This can be done by cutting down on the use of international wood and instead buying local wood. This is the same for purchasing products, which is better to buy locally. Palm oil is also a poor choice for purchasing which is found in many loved products. Shampoo, pizza dough, makeup, detergent, and Nutella are all products that people tend to consume or use. But it isn't to known that these products are high in saturated fats, cause 4% of all greenhouse gas emissions, and 8% of all emissions from using up fossil fuels. Recycling and

1.3.3. Protecting the local people of tropical rainforest areas and helping the localpeople protect the rainforest. It is important to protect the local people because they know most about the rainforest. They want to help protect and preserve it. Their knowledge helps people who live elsewhere to address the threats and possible solutions. Local people preserve the rainforests much better than the government does. Local people and animals help balance the rainforest and its ecosystem. The organization Cool Earth is helpful for both the local people and the rainforest because it ensures that the rainforest and local people are protected. Cool Earth is an organization that works with locals and NGO’s directly. An example of how they help is they develop sustainable agricultural practices, beekeeping, and local leadership.

1.3.4. Influence marketplaces have on the use of materials: If they have this power to destroy don’t they also have the ability to save them? “zero deforestation” policy could clean up their supply chain. If this policy was installedthe company would have to be cautiouswith which suppliers they would interactwith and holding them accountable forproducing products that do not feeddeforestation Companies have a high influence on not only the people working for the company but also possible partnered companies and the public. Corporations could choose to also collaborate with other like-minded businesses.

2. Tundra

2.1. Characterisitcs

2.1.1. Climate

2.1.2. Ecosystem Only plants with shallow root systems grow in the Arctic tundra as the permafrost prevents plants from sending their roots down past the active layer of soil. Only from 50 to 90 days the active layer of soil is free from ice. Strong winds are also present in these - Coldest biome - Vast and treeless land which covers about 20% of the Earth’s surface - Low growing plants like mosses, heaths, and lichen - Insects and many migrating birds Arctic plants have a very short growing season. EXAMPLES of plants: Some examples of plants living in the arctic tundra include: mosses, lichens, low-growing shrubs and grasses (trees not included). In order for the plants to survive the plants are growing close together and low to the ground. This helps the plants resist the effects of the cold temperatures and reduce the damage caused by tiny particles of ice that are driven by the dry winds. Plants have also adapted to the Arctic by having the ability to grow under a layer of snow to carry out photosynthesis in extremely cold temperatures, and for flowering plants to produce flowers quickly once summer begins. There are very few animals living year-round in the Arctic tundra. Most birds and animals mainly use the tundra as a summer home. EXAMPLES of animals: Year-round mammals in the tundra include: Muskox, Arctic wolf and brown bear; and each has its own way of adapting to the extreme climatic conditions.

2.1.3. Biome distribution with examples

2.2. Threats to the biome

2.2.1. Local causes and impacts Inuits are a group of indigenous people inhabiting the Arctic regions of Canada, Greenland, and Alaska. Inuits are the most widespread aboriginal group in the world because of their impressive geographical reach. They are also one of the toughest, having survived some of the most unpleasant climates in the world. Their lives are mainly influenced by the cold tundra climate in which they live. With the permafrost melting, the Inuits tribe are losing their homes since the foundation of their houses are destroyed. Harbours, roads, and airport runways are collapsing. Natural agents along the seashore have eroded, forcing people to move inland.

2.2.2. Regional and national causes and impacts Oil, gas and mining industries in Alaska heavily disrupt the tundra habitat. Results in the thaw of permafrost. Thaw of permafrost is the melting or heating of permanently frozen ground, which is naturally formed. Processes used by these industries in the region also damage soil and prevent vegetation from returning. <-- depletion of resources. EXAMPLE OF NATIONAL OIL INDUSTRIES IN ALASKA: Aix Energy, Amaroq Resources, LLC and Alaska Development

2.2.3. Global causes and impacts Permafrost is starting to melt due to the increase in the winter temperatures. Winter temperatures should be well below -30 degree celcius but lately it has been around -19 degree celcius. Carbon dioxide and Methane gases are released into the atmosphere which further speeds up the process of Global warming. By 2050, the temperatures are high enough to support vegetation. Small amounts of tropical vegetations are being found in these regions. This is a key evidence that supports about the fact of global warming. INDUSTRIALISATION - combustion of resources globally. This combustion releases greenhouse gasses into the environment. Which leads to global warming.

2.3. Management response to reduce threats on the biome

2.3.1. Their are two different types of tundra: there is the Arctic tundra and the Alpine tundra. the Arctic tundra is Located in the northern hemisphere, it is known for its cold, desert like conditions,Growing seasons last from 50-60 days, the animals in the region are: Reindeers, Polar Bears, Muskox, Arctic fox. and the Alpine tundra is located near the mountains throughout the world with high altitude where trees can’t grow. The Growing season: lasts 180 days.In contrast to arctic tundra, soil in the alpines is well drained, it has a large ecosystem: lots of mammals, birds and insects. Grasses, shrubs and small trees, animals located in this region: dall sheep, Yellow bellied marmot, pikas, grouse-like birds, Insects.

2.3.2. When exploring Tundra areas, avoid stepping on plants and soil, only take pictures and leave no waste around

2.3.3. Have the government sign legislations to protect these tundra ecosystem since they are home to many living organisms.

2.3.4. Lower our C02 emissions to fight the heating of the earth, so that the extreme heat won’t damage the tundra’s natural ecosystem.