A monarchy is a formal type of government in which the ruling power is in the hands of a single person. Most monarchies have been ruled by kings, usually with the help of a council of advisors. The word monarchy comes from the Greek terms, monos (meaning "single") and arkhein (meaning "rule").
The King usually retained his political power for life. His eldest son-the prince-succeeded him on the throne. When there was no direct male successor, the king's closest military advisors often battled among themselves to become the new monarch.
Most Important / Remembered, First Known Monarchy, End of Monarchy on Ancient Greece
Success of the Government
Views of Commoners
The Mycenaeans, who ruled ancient Greece from 2000 to 1100 B.C.E., were warrior peoples who established monarchies to rule their kingdoms.
Oligarchy is a farm of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society distinguished by royalty, wealth, family, military power ot occult spiritual hemogony.
Early societies may have become oligarchies as an outgrowth of an alliance between rival tribal chieftains or as the result of a caste system. Oligarchies can often become instruments of transformation, by insisting that monarchs or dictators share power, thereby opening the door to power-sharing by other elements of society.
origin of the name
Most Important / Remebered, First Known Oligarchy, Wars and Remodeling
Transition to Tyranny
The Thirty Tyrants were a pro-Spartan oligarchy installed in Athens after its defeat in the Peloponnesian War in April 404 BC. Its two leading members were Critias and Theramenes. The Thirty severely reduced the rights of Athenian citizens. Imposing a limit on the number of citizens allowed to vote was a standard move on part of wealthy people who objected to being bossed around by the votes of the "rabble" in a broad-based democracy where all free adult males could vote. Participation in legal functions — which had previously been open to all Athenians — was restricted by the 30 to a select group of 500 persons. Only 3,000 Athenians were granted the right to carry weapons or receive a jury trial.
In the classical sense, the word simply means one who has taken power by their own means as opposed to hereditary or constitutional power (and generally without the modern connotations). This mode of rule is referred to as tyranny. Many individual rulers or government officials are accused of tyranny, with the label almost always a matter of controversy.
Greek tyranny in the main grew out of the struggle of the popular classes against the aristocracy or against priest-kings where archaic traditions and mythology sanctioned hereditary and/or traditional rights to rule.
origin of the name
In Ancient Greece, tyrants were influential opportunists that came to power by securing the support of different factions of a deme. The word "tyrant" then carried no ethical censure; it simply referred to anyone who illegally seized executive power in a polis to engage in autocratic, though perhaps benevolent, government, or leadership in a crisis. Support for the tyrants came from the growing class of business people and from the peasants who had no land or were in debt to the wealthy land owners. It is true that they had no legal right to rule, but the people preferred them over kings or the aristocracy. The Greek tyrants stayed in power by using mercenary soldiers from outside of their respective city state.
Most Important / Remembered, Aisymnetes, Hellenic Tyrants, Populism, Sicilian Tyrants
First Known Tyranny
Tyrants seldom succeeded in establishing an untroubled line of succession. The rule of the tyrants was uncertain and they were constantly under threat from the aristocracy who were desperate to regain control.
Democracy was a government structured to serve the people. All white, male citizens had the right to vote under a democratic democracy.
Law and Code
Dividing Populations into Groups
Athenian Democracy, Weaknesses, Pace, Assembly Participation, Advantages, Annual Elections, Chance to Take Part in the Process
First Known Democracy
Most Important / Remembered, Father of Democracy, Cleisthenes, Cleisthenes's Reforms, Pericles
Middle / Lower Class Benefits
Plato's philosophical views had many societal implications, especially on the idea of an ideal state or government. There is some discrepancy between his early and later views. Some of the most famous doctrines are contained in the Republic during his middle period, as well as in the Laws and the Statesmann. However, because Plato wrote dialogues, it is assumed that Socrates is often speaking for Plato. This assumption may not be true in all cases.
basic idea of writings, "Philosopher Kings", weakness, Connecting City to Humans, Transitions of Governments
Relationship with Socretes
basic idea of writings, State "Households" Relationships, Master to Slave, Husband and Wife, Father to Child