MITE 6330 Learning design and technology- Individual assignment

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MITE 6330 Learning design and technology- Individual assignment by Mind Map: MITE 6330 Learning design and technology- Individual assignment

1. Instructional Design

1.1. History

1.1.1. History of Instructional Media

1.1.1.1. School Museum (First decade of 20 century)

1.1.1.2. The Visual Instrucation Movement and Instructional Films (Early part of 20 century)

1.1.1.3. The Audiovisual Instruction Movement andInstructional Radio (1920s-1930s)

1.1.1.4. World War II (1939-1945)

1.1.1.5. Post-World War II Development and Media Research (1950s-1990s)

1.1.1.5.1. Media comparison studies

1.1.1.5.2. Theories of communication

1.1.1.5.3. Instructional Television

1.1.1.5.4. Shifting technology

1.1.1.5.5. Computers

1.1.1.6. Recent Development

1.1.2. History of Instructional Design

1.1.2.1. The Origins of Instructional Design: World War II

1.1.2.1.1. Research and develop training materials for the military services

1.1.2.1.2. Psychologists help assess the skills of trainees and select the individuals

1.1.2.1.3. Solving instructional problems

1.1.2.2. More Early Developments: The Programmed Instruction Movement (mid-1950s - mid-1960s)

1.1.2.2.1. Desired characteristics of effective instructional materials

1.1.2.3. The Popularization of Behavioral Objectives (early 1960s)

1.1.2.3.1. Identifying the specific objectives learners

1.1.2.4. The Criterion-Referenced Testing Movement (early 1960s)

1.1.2.4.1. The emergence of criterion-referenced testing

1.1.2.5. Domains of Learning, Events of Instruction, and Hierarchical Analysis (1965)

1.1.2.5.1. Domains of learning outcomes

1.1.2.6. The Indirect Launching of Formative Evaluation (1957)

1.1.2.6.1. Events that would eventually have a major impact on the instructional design process

1.1.2.7. Burgeoning of Interest in the Systems Approach (1970s)

1.1.2.7.1. interest in the instructional design process flourished in a variety of different sectors

1.1.2.8. Growth and Redirection (1980s)

1.1.2.8.1. Increasing interest in the use of microcomputers for instructional purposes

1.1.2.8.2. The relatively new performance technology movement was beginning to have an effect on instructional design practices

1.1.2.9. Changing Views and Practices (1990s)

1.1.2.9.1. Factors

1.2. Instructional Design

1.2.1. Examples

1.2.1.1. In education

1.2.1.1.1. ICT

1.2.1.1.2. E-learning

1.2.1.1.3. Flexible learning

1.2.1.1.4. Distance education

1.2.1.2. In commercial environment

1.2.1.2.1. Train need

1.2.1.2.2. Specialized e-training

1.2.1.2.3. Digital content for sale

1.2.1.2.4. Custom solution for client

1.2.2. Reading for Instructional Design

2. Learning theories and models

2.1. Learning theories

2.1.1. Behaviorism

2.1.1.1. Basics of Behaviorism

2.1.1.2. Strengths and Weaknesses

2.1.1.2.1. Weakness

2.1.1.2.2. Strength

2.1.2. Cognitivism

2.1.2.1. Basics of Cognitivism

2.1.2.1.1. Key Concepts

2.1.2.2. Cognitivism and Instructional Design

2.1.2.2.1. Cognitivism and Computer-Based Instruction

2.1.2.3. Strengths and Weaknesses

2.1.2.3.1. Weakness

2.1.2.3.2. Strength

2.1.3. Constructivism

2.1.3.1. Basics of Constructivism

2.1.3.1.1. Realistic vs. Radical Construction

2.1.3.1.2. Assumptions of Constructivism

2.1.3.2. Strengths and Weaknesses

2.1.3.2.1. Weakness

2.1.3.2.2. Strength

2.1.3.3. Constructivist Learning Environments (CLE)

2.1.3.3.1. Design

2.1.3.3.2. The environment

2.1.3.3.3. Collaboration

2.2. Elaboration Theory

2.2.1. Key idea

2.2.2. Strategy components

2.2.2.1. An elaborative sequence

2.2.2.2. Learning prerequisite sequences

2.2.2.3. Summary

2.2.2.4. Synthesis

2.2.2.5. Analogies

2.2.2.6. Cognitive strategies

2.2.2.7. Learner control

2.2.3. Example

2.2.3.1. Organizing content

2.2.3.2. Supporting content

2.2.3.2.1. Price

2.2.3.2.2. Supply

2.2.3.2.3. Demand

2.2.3.2.4. Increase

2.2.3.2.5. Decrease

2.2.4. Principles

2.2.4.1. More effective

2.2.4.2. Rrelationships

2.2.4.2.1. Conceptual

2.2.4.2.2. Procedural

2.2.4.2.3. Theoretical

2.2.4.2.4. Learning pre-requisites

2.2.5. Video for Elaboration Theory

2.3. Activity theory

2.3.1. Definition

2.3.2. Activity system

2.3.2.1. Unit of analysis

2.3.2.2. Composed of subject

2.3.2.3. Object

2.3.2.4. Tools

2.3.2.5. Rules

2.3.2.6. Community

2.3.2.7. Division of labor

2.3.3. Assumptions (Key concepts)

2.3.3.1. Activities are the human interactions with the objective world and the conscious activities

2.3.3.2. Mind and body cannot separable

2.3.3.3. Conscious learning emerges from activity

2.3.3.4. Conscious learning can be obtained by doing

2.3.4. Activity theory in designing CLEs

2.3.4.1. Reasons

2.3.4.2. Steps

2.3.4.2.1. Clarify purpose of activity system

2.3.4.2.2. Analyze the activity system

2.3.4.2.3. Analyze the activity structure

2.3.4.2.4. Analyze tools and mediators

2.3.4.2.5. Analyze the context

2.3.4.2.6. Analyze activity system dynamics

2.4. Learning models

2.4.1. Problem Based Learning (PBL)

2.4.1.1. Definition

2.4.1.2. Goals

2.4.1.2.1. Develop flexible knowledge

2.4.1.2.2. Effective problem solving skills

2.4.1.2.3. Self-directed learning

2.4.1.2.4. Effective collaboration skills

2.4.1.2.5. Intrinsic motivation

2.4.1.3. Three primary propositions

2.4.1.3.1. Understanding is in our interactions with the environment

2.4.1.3.2. Cognitive conflict or puzzlement is the stimulus for learning and determines the organization and nature of what is learned

2.4.1.3.3. Knowledge evolves through social negotiation and through the evaluation of the viability of individual understandings

2.4.1.4. Instructional Principles

2.4.1.4.1. Anchor all learning activities to a larger task

2.4.1.4.2. Support the learner in developing ownership

2.4.1.4.3. Design an authentic task

2.4.1.4.4. Design the task and the learning environment to reflect the complexity of the environment

2.4.1.4.5. Give the learner ownership to develop a solution

2.4.1.4.6. Learning environment for support and challenge learner's thinking

2.4.1.4.7. Encourage testing ideas against alternative views

2.4.1.4.8. Provide opportunity for and support reflection on both the content learned and the learning process

2.4.1.5. PBL

2.4.1.5.1. Learning goals

2.4.1.5.2. Problem Generation

2.4.1.5.3. Problem Presentation

2.4.2. Rich Environments for Active Learning (REALs)

2.4.2.1. Basic of REALs

2.4.2.1.1. Purpose

2.4.2.1.2. Characteristics

2.4.2.2. PBL's application of REAL characteristics

2.4.2.2.1. Student responsibility and initiative

2.4.2.2.2. Dynamic generative learning activities

2.4.2.2.3. Authentic learning contexts

2.4.2.2.4. Collaboration

2.5. The 4C/ID-Model

2.5.1. Learning Tasks

2.5.1.1. Stimulate learners to construct cognitive schemata

2.5.1.1.1. Mental models that allow for reasoning in the domain

2.5.1.1.2. Cognitive strategies that guide problem solving in the domain

2.5.1.2. Task classes

2.5.1.2.1. simple-to-complex categories

2.5.1.3. Learner support

2.5.1.3.1. The given state that a learner is confronted with

2.5.1.3.2. The criteria for an acceptable goal state

2.5.1.3.3. A solution for a sequence of operators that enables the transition from the given state to the goal state

2.5.1.3.4. A problem-solving process

2.5.2. Supportive Information

2.5.2.1. Provides the bridge between what learners already know and their work on the learning tasks

2.5.2.2. Allowing learners to do things that could not be done before

2.5.2.3. Mental models

2.5.2.3.1. Inductive strategies

2.5.2.3.2. Deductive strategies

2.5.2.4. Cognitive strategies

2.5.2.4.1. Contain both general, abstract knowledge and concrete cases that exemplify this knowledge

2.5.2.5. Cognitive feedback

2.5.2.5.1. Relates to feedback that is provided on the quality of performance

2.5.3. Just-in-Time Information

2.5.3.1. Information displays

2.5.3.1.1. A didactical specification of the rules that describe correct performance

2.5.3.2. Demonstrations and instances

2.5.3.2.1. Most of the elements in information displays are general statements about the recurrent skill, or, generalities

2.5.3.3. Corrective feedback

2.5.3.3.1. Relates to feedback that is provided on the quality of performance

2.5.4. Part-task Practice

2.5.4.1. Practice items

2.5.4.1.1. The specification of practice items for part-task practice is a pretty straightforward process

2.5.4.2. JIT information for part-task practice

2.5.4.2.1. Relevant for learning tasks

2.5.4.2.2. Relevant to part-task practice

2.5.4.3. Overtraining

2.5.4.3.1. Lead to accurate performance of a recurrent skill

3. Instructional Design Models

3.1. Events of Instruction (Gagne)

3.1.1. 9 events

3.1.1.1. Gaining Attention

3.1.1.2. Informaing learner of the objective

3.1.1.3. Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning

3.1.1.4. Presenting the stimulus

3.1.1.5. Providing learning guidance

3.1.1.6. Elicting performance

3.1.1.7. Providing feedback about performance

3.1.1.8. Assessing the performance

3.1.1.9. Ehanceing retention and transfer

3.1.2. Principles

3.1.2.1. Different instruction is required for different learning outcomes

3.1.2.2. Events of learning operate on the learner in ways that constitute the conditions of learning

3.1.2.3. The specific operations that constitute instructional events are different for each different type of learning outcome

3.1.2.4. Learning hierarchies define what intellectual skills are to be learned and a sequence of instruction

3.1.3. Example

3.2. Reusable Learning Object Strategy (ROLs)

3.2.1. Definition

3.2.1.1. Leverage

3.2.1.1.1. Problem-based learning

3.2.1.1.2. Exploratory environments

3.2.1.1.3. Performance support systems

3.2.1.1.4. Job aids

3.2.1.1.5. Help systems

3.2.1.1.6. Blended learning solution

3.2.2. Benefits

3.2.2.1. For Authors

3.2.2.1.1. Supports the design of many learning approaches

3.2.2.1.2. Ensures, through the use of object-specific templates

3.2.2.1.3. Provides a consistent design structure

3.2.2.1.4. Provides guidelines for authors

3.2.2.1.5. Enables detailed searches

3.2.2.1.6. Allows authors to combine old and new objects

3.2.2.1.7. Supports both reuse and repurposing from the smallest media element

3.2.2.1.8. Enables application of delivery formats and styles

3.2.2.1.9. Supports a broad range of delivery types

3.2.2.2. For Learners

3.2.2.2.1. Provides a mechanism for learners to self-assess their skills and knowledge

3.2.2.2.2. Supports the acquisition of new skills and knowledge

3.2.2.2.3. Enables, through the use of detailed metadata about each object, custom learning paths

3.2.2.2.4. Enables learners to search on job-specific objects

3.2.2.2.5. Delivers a consistent learning experience

3.2.2.2.6. Supports multiple learning approaches

3.2.2.3. For Organizations

3.2.2.3.1. Reduces the costs

3.2.2.3.2. Scales the development model

3.2.2.3.3. Increases the speed to successful performance

3.2.2.3.4. Decreases development and maintenance time

3.2.2.3.5. Allows the rapid creation of certification materials

3.2.2.3.6. Personalizes learning approaches and delivery types

3.2.2.3.7. Aligns content found in learning content management systems

3.2.3. Development Process

3.2.3.1. ADDIE model

3.2.3.1.1. Analyze

3.2.3.1.2. Design

3.2.3.1.3. Develop

3.2.3.1.4. Implement

3.2.3.1.5. Evaluate

3.2.3.2. LOD process

3.2.3.2.1. Granular Analysis

3.2.3.2.2. Design and Mine

3.2.3.2.3. Reuse and Develop

3.2.3.2.4. Deliver and Reference

3.2.3.2.5. Maintain for life

3.2.3.2.6. Evaluate

3.2.3.3. LOD's benefits

3.2.3.3.1. Help learners understand the unique characteristics of creating solutions from learning objects

3.2.3.3.2. Allows for both behavioral and constructivist training and performance solutions

4. Learning Technologies

4.1. Web 2.0

4.1.1. Basic of Web 2.0

4.1.1.1. Paradigm shift

4.1.1.2. Creation of new information

4.1.1.3. Internet–mediated social activities

4.1.1.4. Rich user experiences

4.1.2. Education and Web 2.0

4.1.2.1. New forms of assessment such as digits portfolios

4.1.2.2. Use of Internet-mediated social learning spaces

4.1.2.3. New models and methods for the design of learning objects

4.1.2.4. New models for resources sharing and support for technology integration of communities of teachers

4.1.2.5. New generations of learning management systems

4.1.3. Tools

4.1.3.1. Blog

4.1.3.1.1. Picasa

4.1.3.1.2. Blogger

4.1.3.1.3. Umana

4.1.3.2. Wiki

4.1.3.2.1. Wikipedia

4.1.3.2.2. TWiki

4.1.3.2.3. Wikispaces

4.1.3.3. Social Bookmarking

4.1.3.3.1. del.icio.us

4.1.3.3.2. Risal

4.1.3.3.3. clipmarks

4.1.3.4. Social Repositories

4.1.3.4.1. Youtube

4.1.3.4.2. Flickr

4.1.3.5. Social Networking

4.1.3.5.1. Facebook

4.1.3.5.2. Twitter

4.1.3.5.3. Myspace

4.1.3.6. RSS Feeds and Aggregators

4.1.3.7. Podcasting

4.2. Handheld devices

4.2.1. Definition

4.2.2. Educational Advantages

4.2.2.1. Cost

4.2.2.2. Mobility

4.2.2.3. Wireless

4.2.2.4. Size

4.2.2.4.1. Physical storage of devices

4.2.2.4.2. Media storage

4.2.2.4.3. Ubiquitous access

4.2.2.5. Ownership

4.2.2.6. Access

4.2.2.7. Collaboration and Sharing

4.2.2.8. Simplicity

4.2.3. Different types of handheld devices

4.2.3.1. Personal Digital Assistants

4.2.3.2. GPS and GIS in the Classroom

4.2.3.3. Portable Electronic Keyboards

4.2.3.4. Digital Cameras

4.2.3.5. Other Devices

5. Concept learning

5.1. Types of concepts

5.1.1. Concrete or perceptual concepts

5.1.1.1. From a behaviorist stance

5.1.2. Defined, or relational and associated concepts

5.1.2.1. From a behaviorist stance

5.1.3. Complex concepts

5.1.3.1. Constructs like schemas and scripts

5.1.4. Not a concept

5.1.4.1. Verbal information: reciting something from memory

5.1.4.2. The first level of intellectual skills - discrimination

5.2. Constructivist approaches

5.2.1. Using questions to learn defined concepts

5.2.2. Conversational approaches

5.2.3. Complex Hypertexts

5.2.4. Problem-based learning

6. Collaborative learning

6.1. Definition

6.2. Impact

6.2.1. Positive Growth in Student Achievement

6.2.1.1. Group goals

6.2.1.2. Individual accountability

6.2.2. Improved Relations among Different Ethnic Groups

6.2.3. Mainstreaming Students with Learning Disabilities

6.3. Components

6.3.1. Objectives

6.3.2. Activities

6.3.3. Sequencing

6.3.4. Distribute Roles

6.3.5. Type of Representation

6.4. Examples

6.4.1. Collaborative Networked Learning

6.4.2. Computer-supported collaborative learning

6.4.3. Learning Management Systems

6.4.4. Collaborative Learning Development

6.4.5. Collaborative Learning in Virtual Worlds

7. Reference

7.1. Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part I: A history of instructional media. ETR&D, 49(1), 53-64.

7.2. Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part II: A history of instructional design. ETR&D, 49(2), 57-67.

7.3. Moallem, M. (1998). An expert teacher's thinking and teaching and instructional design models and principles: an ethnographic study. Educational Technology Research and Development. 46, 37-64.

7.4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instructional_design

7.5. http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/Concept_learning

7.6. van Merriënboer, Jeroen.J.G, Richard E Clark, Marcel B M de Croock, (2002) Blueprints for complex learning: The 4C/ID-model, Educational Technology, Research and Development. 50 (2);39-64

7.7. Grabinger, Scott and Dunlap, Joanna and Duffield, Judith (1997) Rich environments for active learning in action: Problem‐based learning. Association for Learning Technology Journal, 5 (2). pp. 5-17

7.8. Savery, J. R., & Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem based learning: an instructional model and its constructivist framework. Educational Technology, 35(5), 31-38

7.9. Jonassen, D. & Rohrer-Murphy, L. (1999). Activity theory as a framework for designing constructivist learning environments. Educational Technology, Research & Development, 47 (1), 61-79.

7.10. Patten, B., Sánchez, I. A., & Tangney, B. (2006). Designing collaborative, constructionist and contextual applications for handheld devices. Computers & Education, 46(3), 294-308.

7.11. http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/elaboration-theory.html

7.12. Cisco. (1999). Cisco Systems reusable information object strategy: definition, creation overview, and guidelines. Cisco Systems, Inc.

7.13. Robert D. Tennyson. Historical Reflection on Learning Theories and Instructional Design, 1-16

7.14. Jonassen, D. (1999). Designing constructivist learning environments. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory, volume 2 (pp. 215—239). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

7.15. Kearsley, G. (1994a). Conditions of learning (R. Gagne).

7.16. Reusable Learning Object Strategy: Designing and Developing Learning Objects for Multiple Learning Approaches

7.17. http://www.tammypayton.net/courses/collab/what.shtml

7.18. Churchill, D. (2007). Web 2.0 and possibilities for educational applications. Educational Technology, 47(2), 24-29.

7.19. Handheld Technologies