The Korean war, 1950-53

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The Korean war, 1950-53 by Mind Map: The Korean war, 1950-53

1. Korea, 1945-49

1.1. In 1945 when the Soviet Red Army arrived in north Korean they lost little time in installing local communist in power in the areas under their control

1.1.1. The US immediately proposed an initial division of the peninsular at the 38th parallel

1.1.1.1. Kim II-sung had established a committee in the Korean capital of Seoul, announcing its intention to rule Korea as a Communist People's Republic

1.1.1.1.1. Syngman Rhee an anti-communist had also established a committee which claimed to be the Provisional Government for the whole nation

1.2. The creation of the North and South Korea: ROK and DPRK

1.2.1. Initially the US rejected the claims of both groups

1.2.1.1. A joint commission of Soviet and US officials were to advise the Koreans on creating a democratic government

1.2.1.1.1. As disagreements continue the US refer the problem to the United Nations

1.3. Soviet withdrawal

1.3.1. Soviet troops were withdrawn from northern Korea but they left behind them much more military hardware

1.3.1.1. These were regularly supplemented by further arms deliveries from the USSR

1.3.1.1.1. In 1948, Stalin was not entirely confident that the CCP would win the civil war in China

1.4. US withdrawal

1.4.1. With the creation of the ROK, US policy maker were divided about whether the 45000-strong US occupation army should remain or whether these troops should withdrawn

1.4.1.1. Military planners thought that the troops could be more effectively deployed elsewhere and the Korea should not be included within the US`s Asian defence perimeter.

1.4.1.1.1. US was convinced that Korea was not worth the expenses of a prolonged military occupation

1.4.1.2. Another argument was that a removal of troops would weaken US prestige and result in the occupation of the South Korea by a Soviet-armed North Korean army

2. Soviet and Chinese support

2.1. Kim had a talk with Stalin

2.1.1. Kim send troops to the mauntains in the frontier, they were well equiped soldiers.

2.1.1.1. This didn´t bring positive consecuences.

2.1.2. Kim had a talk with Mao

2.1.2.1. Mao gave his advice that the US woun´t take part into it.

2.1.3. Kim has Stalin´s support on doing an invasion.

2.1.3.1. This was because Stalin wants to dominate Corea and in this case he would do it by Kim

2.1.3.1.1. Stalin wanted these becaus Korea could defende the economic interests of them.

3. The outbreack of the Korean War

3.1. The USSR supplied North Korea with weapons and military advisors behind the back of the U.S

3.1.1. This Gave North Korea a big advantage over their Southern counterparts.

3.1.2. North Korea begins a surprise attack on the South, surprising both the U.S and South Korea.

3.1.2.1. Although in the beginning Kim's forces swept through the opposition, the U.S forces reacted surprisingly quickly.

3.1.2.1.1. By August Kim had conquered around 90% of Korea.

3.1.2.1.2. The U.S led U.N task force was confined to a small area called Busan

3.1.2.2. The U.S and their allies set troops to assist South Korea, secretly Stalin told Truman that this would not be considered an act of war.

3.1.2.3. Truman sent the 7th fleet to protect Taiwan from a PRC invasion.

3.1.2.3.1. The U.S had a base in this area, which could be used to affect Japan and the Philippines.

3.1.2.3.2. This fleet was seen by Mao as a threat to the PRC, and felt that the U.S was preparing an attack against them.

4. Attempts to stop the Korean War

4.1. As early as December of 1950, there were attempts to stop the War, but it was in the year 1953 that a ceasefire was finally accepted.

4.1.1. On the 5th of December, 1950, 13 non western states, headed by India, proposed a ceasefire to the PRC and the UN.

4.1.1.1. It called for the PRC to halt its advance on the 38th parallel, calling for a ceasefire and a conference that would find a viable solution for the problem in Korea.

4.1.1.1.1. This treaty presented the US with a dilemma.

4.1.1.2. The UN accepted this proposal and called for a group to seek out a viable solution for the involved nations to accept the treaty.

4.1.1.2.1. The UN forces, combined with the US forces in Korea were too strong for China to handle on their own.

5. Indochina 1945-54

5.1. On 29 August 1945, Hò Chín Minh proclaimed an independent, communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam.

5.1.1. He aimed to free Vietnam from Japanese domination during the Second World War and from France afterwards.

5.1.1.1. He created the League for the Independence of Vietnam, the viet Minh

5.2. The Indochinese War, 1946-54

5.2.1. Japan occupied French Indochina in 1940, but allowed French officials to continue to administer the region

5.2.1.1. Japan took over complete control in March 1945

5.2.1.1.1. After Japan's defeat, British troops occupied southern Vietnam while Chinese NAtionalist took control of the North

5.2.2. The outbreak of hostilities

5.2.2.1. The agreement did not last as the French government was still determined to control Vietnam while Hò wanted only the loosest of associations with France

5.2.2.1.1. France had little difficulty in confining the revolt to mountainous areas

5.2.3. France on the defensive, 1950-54

5.2.3.1. In April 1959, Mao sent one of this most experienced generals to Vietnam

5.2.3.1.1. He organized a military campaign where direct assistance to the Viet Minh could be provided

5.2.4. The US and the Indochinese War

5.2.4.1. The US faced a quandary in Vietnam. One way out of this dilemma was to find a non-communist rival to Hó who would be able to appeal to the people´s nationalism and thus unite them against communism by setting up a strong, patriotic and capitalist government

5.2.4.1.1. For this, France would have to be pressured into grating a greater degree of independence to Vietnam while still continuing the war against Viet Minh

5.3. The Geneva Conference, 1954

5.3.1. The PRC and the Soviet Union wanted to finish the Indochinese War.

5.3.1.1. The PRC's government needed a respite from conflict to settle a the Five Year Plan to build up its economy

5.3.1.2. The Soviets after Stallin's death wished to focus on domestic issues and relax international tensions

5.3.1.2.1. On 28 September 1953, the Soviets suggested calling an international conference to solve the Korean and Indochinese problems

5.3.2. Reaction of the US and its allies

5.3.2.1. The proposal had a mixed reception, Britain and France supported it.

5.3.2.1.1. France agreed as they didn't have enough economic resources to maintin the cost of the conflict

5.3.2.1.2. The US agreed in order to not offend its allies, France and Britain

5.3.3. The conference

5.3.3.1. The Geneva Conference started on 26 April 1954. On 6 May, a massive Viet Minh attack forced French troops to surrender at Ðiện Biên Phủ the nex day

5.3.3.1.1. France rejected US advice to continue fighting, in the command of Pierre Mendes a new goerment was created that criticized the war in Indochina.

6. The consequences of the war

6.1. The Korean War was an important turning point in the Cold War and had important consequences in many countries:

6.1.1. USSR

6.1.1.1. On one hand, the war brought the USSR and China closer together as they supplied military equipment to Mao. On the other hand, the Sino-Soviet alliance was damaged as Mao felt morally superior than the USSR

6.1.2. China

6.1.2.1. Mao used the Korean War to foment a revolutionary change withing the PRC against the US

6.1.3. Western Europe

6.1.3.1. "The Korean War created Europe as it strengthened NATO, led the rearment of West Germany and it started the integrations towards the western Europe

6.1.4. US

6.1.4.1. The War strengthened the NSC and its idea that communism was a global threat. The US tripled their military budget and rearmed Germany