BLE 527 - Study Guide

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BLE 527 - Study Guide by Mind Map: BLE 527 - Study Guide

1. K, 1, 2-3, 4-5, 6-8, 9-12

2. Funds of Knowledge

3. Blooms Revised Taxonomy

3.1. Remember

3.1.1. Recalling Info

3.1.2. Recognizing

3.1.3. Listing

3.1.4. Describing

3.1.5. Retrieving

3.1.6. Naming

3.1.7. Finding

3.2. Understand

3.2.1. Explaining ideas or concepts

3.2.2. Interpreting

3.2.3. Summarizing/Paraphrasing

3.2.4. Classify

3.2.5. Explain

3.3. Apply

3.3.1. Using information in another familiar situation

3.3.2. Implement, Carry Out, Use, and Execute

3.4. Analyze

3.4.1. Organize

3.4.2. Breaking information into parts to explore understandings and relationships

3.4.3. Compare

3.4.4. Reverse Engineer

3.4.5. Interrogate

3.4.6. Find

3.5. Create

3.5.1. Evaluate

3.5.1.1. Justifying a decision or course of action: Check, Hypothesize, Critique, Experiment, and Judge.

3.5.2. Generating new ideas, products, or ways of viewing things, designing, constructing, planning, producing, and inventing.

4. English Language Proficiency

4.1. Levels of Language Proficiency Review

4.1.1. Transitional

4.1.1.1. Lisa's spoken English is so good that some mistake her for a native speaker. Her reading and writing skills are excellent. However, she occasionally has to ask for or look up the meanings of unknown words, and she sometimes misuses words and writes awkward-sounding sentences in her class papers on academic topics.

4.1.2. Beginning

4.1.2.1. Marco recently arrived in the United States. He knows only a few words (hello, goodbye, thank you) and understands very little of anything said to him in English.

4.1.3. Advanced Beginning

4.1.3.1. Adriana is able to understand some of what she hears, especially when teachers or other speakers use simple language structures and slow down their rate of speech. She is able to answer some simple questions that require answers in words and simple phrases.

4.1.4. Advanced

4.1.4.1. Israel easily converses with his peers and teachers on a wide variety of topics. However, he still lacks some specialized content-area vocabulary and has difficulty comprehending sentences with complex structure, especially when reading.

4.1.5. Intermediate

4.1.5.1. Shanaya is able to use long phrases and short sentences and in general is able to get others to understand what she is saying, despite a number of grammatical errors. She gets frustrated sometimes when she lacks the precise words to explain what she means, or when she can't quite understand what someone is saying to her.

4.2. Definition

4.2.1. Standards that include specific descriptors that detail language proficiency expectations in the following:

4.2.1.1. Listening, Speaking, Reading, and writing.

4.3. Accomodations

4.3.1. DO NOT INCLUDE OVERSIMPLIFYING CONTENT

4.3.2. Should be made based on knowledge of ELL students needs and should reflect teacher's ability to adjust instructional materials to make them accessible to second-language learners.

4.4. Levels

4.4.1. GENERAL

4.4.1.1. 1. Beginning - Level 1

4.4.1.1.1. ELL students at this proficiency level have little or no ability to understand/use English. They may know a little English but not enough to function meaningfully in social and academic interactions.

4.4.1.1.2. may remain silent not ask for help

4.4.1.1.3. watching others for cues

4.4.1.2. 2. Advanced Beginning - Level 2

4.4.1.2.1. ELL students at this language proficiency level are able to understand simple, high-frequency spoken English used in routine academic and social settings

4.4.1.2.2. when topics are unfamiliar, require extensive linguistic supports and adaptations such as visuals, slower speech and other verbal cues, simplified language, gestures, and preteaching to preview or build topic-related vocabulary;

4.4.1.2.3. have the ability to seek clarification in English when failing to comprehend the English they hear by requiring/requesting the speaker to repeat, slow down, or rephrase speech

4.4.1.3. 3. Intermediate - Level 3

4.4.1.3.1. have the ability to understand, with second language acquisition support, grade-appropriate spoken English used in academic and social settings. These students:

4.4.1.3.2. usually understand longer, more elaborated directions, conversations, and discussions on familiar and some unfamiliar topics, but sometimes need processing time and sometimes depend on visuals, verbal cues, and gestures to support understanding;

4.4.1.3.3. understand most main points, most important details, some implicit information during social and basic instructional interactions (unmodified)

4.4.1.3.4. occasionally require/request speaker to repeat, slow down, rephrase

4.4.1.4. 4. Advanced - Level 4

4.4.1.4.1. ability to understand, with minimal second language acquisition support, grade-appropriate spoken English used in academic and social settings. These students:

4.4.1.4.2. understand longer elaborated directions, conversations, and discussions on familiar and unfamiliar topics with occasional need for processing time (little dependence on visuals, verbal cues, gestures; some exceptions when complex academic or high specialized language used)

4.4.1.4.3. rarely require support such as repetition, slowing down, rephrasing

4.4.2. SPEAKING

4.4.2.1. Beginning - Level 1 (speaking)

4.4.2.1.1. single words, short phrases, recently practices or memorized or high familiar material to get immediate needs met. might be hesitant

4.4.2.1.2. limited bank of high-frequency words, high need concrete vocab.

4.4.2.1.3. lack English grammar to connect ideas and speak in sentences unless repeating memorized highly practiced material

4.4.2.2. Advanced Beginning -Level 2 (speaking)

4.4.2.2.1. express simple, original messages, speak using sentences, participate in short conversations and classroom interactions, may hesitate often to think and process

4.4.2.2.2. basic vocabulary needed in everyday social interactions

4.4.2.2.3. emerging awareness of english grammar and speak using mostle simple sentence structures and simple tenses (mostly present tense)

4.4.2.3. Intermediate - Level 3 (speaking)

4.4.2.3.1. grade appropriate English

4.4.2.3.2. participate comfortable in most conversations and academic discussions on familiar topics, some pauses to restate or repeat

4.4.2.3.3. discuss familiar academic topics using content-based terms, usually speak in some detail

4.4.2.3.4. grasp on basic grammar features, including a basic ability to narrate and describe present, past, future tenses

4.4.2.3.5. some errors that interfere with communication when using complex grammar structures

4.4.2.4. Advanced - Level 4 (speaking)

4.4.2.4.1. ability to speak using grade appropriate English with minimal second language acquisition support in academic and social settings

4.4.2.4.2. participate extended discussions on a variety of social and grade-appropriate academic topics only occasional disruptions

4.4.2.4.3. can communicate using abstract and content-based vocab. during classroom instructional tasks, some exceptions when low-frequency or academically demanding vocabulary is needed

4.4.2.4.4. English grammar structures and complex sentences to narrate and describe at a level nearly comparable to native English-speaking peers

4.4.3. READING

4.4.3.1. Beginning - Level 1 (reading)

4.4.3.1.1. derive little to no meaning from grade-appropriate stories read aloud in English unless stories are read in short "chunks", controlled, accompanied by ample visual supports such as illustrations, gestures, pantomime, and objects and by linguistic supports such as careful enunciations and slow speech

4.4.3.1.2. difficulty decoding

4.4.3.2. Advanced Beginning - Level 2 (reading)

4.4.3.2.1. demonstrate limited comprehension (key words and general meaning) of grade-appropriate stories read aloud in English, unless stories include: predictability story lines, high familiar topics, primarily high-frequency/concrete vocab, short, simple sentences, visual linguistic supports

4.4.3.2.2. regularly recognize and understand common environment print

4.4.3.2.3. difficulty decoding grade-appropriate English text because they: understand the meaning of only those English words they hear frequently and struggle with some sounds in English words & some sound-symbol relationships due to differences between their primary language and English.

4.4.3.3. Intermediate - Level 3 (reading)

4.4.3.3.1. demonstrates comprehension of most main points and most supporting ideas in grade-appropriate stories read aloud in English, still may depend on visual or linguistic supports to confirm meaning

4.4.3.3.2. recognize some basic English vocab. and high-frequency words in isolated print

4.4.3.3.3. able to decode most of grade-appropriate English text

4.4.3.4. Advanced - Level 4 (reading)

4.4.3.4.1. demonstrates, with minimal support, comprehension of main points and supporting explicit and implicit ideas almost comparable to native English-speaker

4.4.3.4.2. recognize sight vocab. and high-frequency words to a degree nearly comparable to that of native English-speaker

4.4.3.4.3. decodes and understands grade-appropriate English text at a level nearly comparable to native English speaker

5. SLA Methods and Approaches

5.1. Grammar Translation Approach

5.1.1. Learning is largely by translation to and from the target language. Grammar rules are to be memorized and long lists of vocabulary learned by heart. There is little or no emphasis placed on developing oral ability.

5.2. The Direct Approach

5.2.1. In this method the teaching is done entirely in the target language. The learner is not allowed to use his or her mother tongue. Grammar rules are avoided and there is emphasis on good pronunciation.

5.3. The Audio-lingual Method

5.3.1. The theory behind this method is that learning a language means acquiring habits. There is much practice of dialogues of every situations. New language is first heard and extensively drilled before being seen in its written form.

5.4. The Cognitive Approach

5.4.1. A cognitive theory of learning sees second language acquisition as a conscious and reasoned thinking process, involving the deliberate use of learning strategies.

5.4.2. This view leads to a classroom focus on using learning strategies that have been observed in successful language learners and to a view of the learner as an information-processor.

5.5. Total Physical Response (TPR)

5.5.1. TPR works by having the learner respond to simple commands such as "Stand up", "Close your book", "Go to the window and open it." The method stresses the importance of aural comprehension

5.6. The Natural Approach

5.6.1. This approach stresses the similarities between learning the first and second languages. There is no correction of mistakes. Learning takes place by the students being exposed to language that is comprehensible or made comprehensible to them.

5.7. The Silent Way

5.7.1. This is so called because the aim of the teacher is to say as little as possible in order that the learner can be in control of what he wants to say. No use is made of the mother tongue.

5.8. The Communicative Approach

5.8.1. Community Language Learning

5.8.1.1. In this method attempts are made to build strong personal links between the teacher and student so that there are no blocks to learning. There is much talk in the mother tongue which is translated by the teacher for repetition by the student

5.8.2. The focus of this method is to enable the learner to communicate effectively and appropriately in the various situations she would be likely to find herself in. The content of CLT courses are functions such as inviting, suggesting, complaining or notions such as the expression of time, quantity, location.

5.9. Suggestopedia

5.9.1. The theory underlying this method is that a language can be acquired only when the learner is receptive and has no mental blocks. By various methods it is suggested to the student that the language is easy (classical music, calming environment, etc.), and in this way the mental blocks to learning are removed.

6. Compound, Complex, or Simple Sentences

6.1. Simple

6.1.1. Sentence that contains ONE main clause (complete thought)

6.1.1.1. Connor took several incredible panoramic photographs of the sweeping view from the top of Table Mountain.

6.1.1.2. During last night's thunderstorm, a flurry of tiny hailstones danced across the roof of our house.

6.1.1.3. Since 1923, the United States Flag Code has provided advisory rules for displaying and handling the U.S. flag.

6.1.1.4. The production of a single pound of honey requires nectar from approximately two million flowers.

6.1.1.5. The vibrant trumpet-shaped blooms of the trumpet vine make it ideal for attracting hummingbirds.

6.2. Compound

6.2.1. Sentence that contains TWO or more independent (or main) clauses (complete thoughts) joined by ,FANBOYS, a semi-colon, or ;_____, with a conjunctive adverb.

6.2.1.1. The weather forecast had predicted severe thunderstorms, but the dark and heavy thunderclouds never materialized.

6.2.1.2. Lorraine Hansberry wrote the widely acclaimed 1959 Broadway play A Raisin in the Sun, and her accomplishment opened the door for other African American playwrights.

6.2.1.3. An avid reader, Brody attends weekly book club meetings, and he finishes several novels every month.

6.2.1.4. Aaron has an unconventional swing, but he manages to drive the ball farther than some professional golfers.

6.2.1.5. Tanner always approaches difficult tasks enthusiastically, and he frequently motivates others with his energy and fervor.

6.2.1.6. The saw-scaled viper does not have the deadliest venom; however, it is responsible for more human deaths than any other snake.

6.2.1.7. Annual plants survive only one season and must be replaced each year, but perennials return each year with new flowers and foliage.

6.2.1.8. Students are unhappy with the new dress code requirements; therefore, they will be discussing their grievances at the next school board meeting.

6.2.1.9. Coral travels through the fish's digestive system; then it is deposited in the reef as white coral sand.

6.2.1.10. Presidents John Adams and George H.W. Bush both had presidential sons, and coincidentally, both sons—John Quincy Adams and George W. Bush—were their fathers' namesakes.

6.2.1.11. Bows and arrows made their first appearance more than twenty-five thousand years ago; in addition, archery has been used for hunting, combat, and sport.

6.2.1.12. Mulberry leaves are silkworms' natural food preference, but silk farmers will often feed the caterpillars a specially designed artificial diet.

6.3. Complex

6.3.1. Sentence that contains One main clause and One or more dependent clause

6.3.1.1. In spite of the extremely hot weather, the police officers continued their bike patrol.

6.3.1.2. Since it takes approximately one thousand years for a used printer cartridge to decompose, recycling these plastic ink dispensers helps the environment.

6.3.1.3. Because most wild orchids naturally affix themselves to trees and branches, planting an orchid in soil will likely kill it.

6.3.1.4. If we can't find an inexpensive hotel for the Fourth of July weekend, we can always stay with my parents.

6.3.1.5. After a potato blight destroyed Ireland's potato crop and precipitated the Great Famine of 1845, the country lost twenty-five percent of its population to starvation and emigration.

6.3.1.6. Although tooth enamel is the hardest substance in the human body, it can't regenerate itself if it is damaged.

6.4. Learning Objectives and Success Criteria

6.4.1. Learning Target

6.4.1.1. Must be observable, measurable, and specific

6.4.2. Learning Targets

6.4.2.1. Describe the new knowledge, understanding and skills, as well as changes in attitudes, that pupils will have at the end of a lesson.

6.4.3. Success Criteria - Definition

6.4.3.1. Specific and measurable descriptions of what success looks like when the learning objective is reached.

6.4.4. Success Criteria - Purpose

6.4.4.1. These allow students to monitor their own learning and help teacher to give specific feedback to students

6.4.5. Effective Learning Objective - Parts of Speech

6.4.5.1. I can explain how to identify parts of speech and grammar structures.

6.4.6. NOT an Effective Learning Objective - Parts of Speech

6.4.6.1. I am aware of parts of speech and grammar structures.

6.4.7. An Effective Learning Objective - Sequence

6.4.7.1. I can use transition words to write a sequence paragraph.

6.4.8. NOT an Effective Learning Objective - Sequence

6.4.8.1. I understand the advantages and disadvantages of using sequence words.

6.4.9. An Effective Learning Objective - Arrays

6.4.9.1. I can solve a multiplication problem using an array.

6.4.10. NOT an Effective Learning Objective - Arrays

6.4.10.1. I can appreciate the value of arrays in solving multiplication problems.

7. PROFICIENCY LEVELS

7.1. preproduction, early preproduction, speech emergence, intermediate fluency, advanced fluency

7.2. SPEAKING

7.2.1. Speaking - Level 1

7.2.1.1. I can provide information about myself and my immediate surroundings by saying single words or memorized phrases.

7.2.2. Speaking - Level 2 (Advanced Beginning)

7.2.2.1. I can provide information about myself and my immediate surroundings by saying words, phrases and memorized expressions. I can answer simple questions on familiar topics. I can handle short social interactions using phrases and simple sentences, but I may need help or visuals to keep the conversation going.

7.2.3. Speaking - Level 3 (Intermediate)

7.2.3.1. I can describe experiences, events and plans, give opinions, narrate a story, and make a simple factual presentation by speaking in connected sentences.

7.2.4. Speaking - Level 4 (Advanced)

7.2.4.1. I can orally present information on familiar topics with clarity and detail. I can present my viewpoint on an issue and support my opinions. I can handle some complicated situations on familiar topics.

7.2.5. Speaking - Level 5 (Transitional)

7.2.5.1. I can communicate with a fair amount of fluency and spontaneity on familiar topics, even in complicated situations. I can link ideas in extended discussions. I can participate actively in most informal and and a few formal conversations .I can deliver a clear, organized presentation appropriate to my audience on a variety of topics.

7.3. READING

7.3.1. Reading - Level 1

7.3.1.1. I can identify some written words or phrases, especially those similar to words in my own language.

7.3.2. Reading - Level 2

7.3.2.1. I can understand familiar written words, phrases and simple sentences. I can understand some ideas in simple texts that contain familiar vocabulary.

7.3.3. Reading - Level 3 (Intermediate)

7.3.3.1. I can understand the main idea and details in texts that contain familiar vocabulary and some details in texts that contain unfamiliar vocabulary.

7.3.4. Reading - Level 4 (Advanced)

7.3.4.1. I can understand the main idea and most details in texts on familiar topics. I can understand the main idea and many details in texts that contain unfamiliar vocabulary.

7.3.5. Reading - Level 5 (Transitional)

7.3.5.1. I can usually understand viewpoints and attitudes expressed in authentic literary and non-literary texts.

7.4. LISTENING

7.4.1. Listening - Level 1

7.4.1.1. I can understand a few familiar words and words similar to my own language when spoken to me.

7.4.2. Listening - Level 2

7.4.2.1. I can understand everyday words, phrases and questions about me, my personal experiences, and my surroundings when people speak slowly and clearly. I can understand some ideas when someone speaks on familiar topics containing phrases, simple sentences, and frequently used expressions.

7.4.3. Listening - Level 3 (Intermediate)

7.4.3.1. I can understand the main idea and many details on familiar topics spoken in a series of connected sentences, conversations, presentations and messages.

7.4.4. Listening - Level 4 (Advanced)

7.4.4.1. I can understand the main points and most details in conversations, spoken presentations and voice messages on familiar topics. I can understand the main idea and some details on unfamiliar topics.

7.4.5. Listening - Level 5 (Transitional)

7.4.5.1. I can understand some extended speech on unfamiliar topics delivered through a variety of authentic media.

7.5. WRITING

7.5.1. Writing - Level 1

7.5.1.1. I can copy or write some words.

7.5.2. Writing - Level 2 (Advanced Beginning)

7.5.2.1. I can write short messages to request or provide information on familiar topics using phrases, simple sentences and memorized expressions.

7.5.3. Writing - Level 3 (Intermediate)

7.5.3.1. I can write communications, descriptions and explanations on familiar topics using a series of connected sentences with some details.

7.5.4. Writing - Level 4 (Advanced)

7.5.4.1. I can write communications, narratives, descriptions or explanations on familiar topics using connected detailed paragraphs.

7.5.5. Writing - Level 5 (Transitional)

7.5.5.1. I can express ideas on a variety of topics in clear, organized texts. I can adjust my writing for most audiences.

8. Stages of Language Acquisition

8.1. Order of Stages

8.2. Preproduction: expectations

8.2.1. Second language learners are internalizing the English language. Minimum to no language or -comprehension skills. Learners may use physical gestures to communicate.

8.3. Preproduction: instructional strategies

8.3.1. use visual aids, use gestures to communicate, use simple question prompts, focus on minimal key vocabulary words and phrases, assign writing assignments that combine pictures and words, be sensitive to cultural norms

8.4. Early Production: expectations

8.4.1. Limited comprehension and language skills, but can speak familiar one or two word responses (telegraphic speech).

8.5. Early Production: instructional strategies

8.5.1. Preproduction strategies + question prompts that require a yes/no or either/or answer or familiar one or two word response, help students expand one and two word responses, use games and role playing to teach new vocabulary, use handouts and worksheets with fill-in-the-blank( cloze) exercises.

8.6. Speech Emergence: expectations

8.6.1. Increased comprehension and language abilities. Produce simple sentences and phrases with errors in grammar. Limited reading comprehension and writing skills

8.7. Speech Emergence: instructional strategies

8.7.1. Use question prompts to answer "who, what, where, when , why, and how" in writing assignments., require one sentence responses, write in a daily journal, use games and role play to demonstrate oral and written text, use media, technology, and the internet to show examples, ask students to problem solve real events.

8.8. Intermediate Fluency: expectations

8.8.1. Advanced command of the English language and comprehension. students combine sentences and phrases to communicate oral and written language.

8.9. Intermediate Fluency: instructional strategies

8.9.1. Analyze complex reading, writing, and speaking assignments, apply

9. Washington ELP Standards

9.1. The number of standards in the Washington ELP Standards.

9.1.1. Ten

9.2. One of the eight Guiding Principles that undergird the ELP Standards?

9.3. The ELP Standards are organized into these grade bands.

9.4. The function of the the Proficiency Level Descriptors (PLDs).

9.4.1. Describe students' language proficiency at the end of each of the five levels

9.5. One of the three language MODALITIES addressed in the Washington ELP Standards.

9.5.1. Receptive

9.6. One of the language DOMAINS addressed in the Washington ELP Standards

9.7. The Washington ELP Standards correspond to ______________.

9.7.1. The identified Practices for Math, Science, and ELA

9.7.2. Speaking

9.8. The Washington ELP Standards were designed and intended to be used by __________.

9.8.1. K-12 classroom teachers, ELL Specialists, Instructional Facilitators

10. Language Acquisition Vocab

10.1. Acquisition

10.1.1. Subconscious process of obtaining subtleties of language and culture; language is immediate, purposeful, pragmatic

10.2. Learning

10.2.1. Conscious process of becoming aware of the rules of a language; overt instruction of vocabulary, grammar, syntax, etc.

10.3. Input Hypothesis

10.3.1. Languages are acquired when language input is slightly beyond current level, and made comprehensible with the help of context

10.4. Affective Filter Hypothesis

10.4.1. Social-emotional factors influence learning, including confidence, motivation, and anxiety

10.5. Natural Order Hypothesis

10.5.1. Learning sequences are acquired in a predictable order, regardless of original or target language

10.6. Motivation Hypothesis

10.6.1. We all learn language out of a need to communicate and belong; learning a new language is similar

10.7. Monitor Hypothesis

10.7.1. The acquisition of a second language involves conscious knowledge about correctness of a language; rules are learned to improve one's oral responses

10.8. Receptive Language Skills

10.8.1. Listening and reading

10.9. Productive Language Skills

10.9.1. Speaking and writing

10.10. BICS

10.10.1. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills

10.11. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)

10.11.1. The language ability needed for casual, interpersonal conversation; everyday, straightforward communication skills, helped by contextual supports such as gestures

10.12. CALP

10.12.1. Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency

10.13. Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)

10.13.1. Refers to formal academic language, essential for students' content area learning; taught, abstract, complex, conceptual; required for analysis, synthesis, and evaluation

10.14. Gradual Release

10.14.1. Focus Lesson - What the teacher is doing:

10.14.1.1. Focusing on a single teaching point

10.14.1.2. Explicitly showing the students a learning behavior through modeling

10.14.1.3. Thinking aloud

10.14.1.4. Using only 10 - 15 minutes of instructional time

10.14.2. Focus Lesson - What the students are doing:

10.14.2.1. Located close to the teacher

10.14.2.2. Watching what the teacher is doing

10.14.2.3. Preparing to participate

10.14.3. Guided Instruction - What the teacher is doing:

10.14.3.1. Providing opportunities for students to verbalize thoughts

10.14.3.2. Listening to conversations to assess understanding

10.14.3.3. Inviting students to give it a try

10.14.3.4. Scaffolding release of some responsibility for learning to students

10.14.3.5. Differentiating content, process, or product

10.14.4. Guided Instruction - What the students are doing:

10.14.4.1. Practicing modeled skill or behavior

10.14.4.2. Responding to questions, prompts, and cues

10.14.4.3. Thinking aloud

10.14.4.4. Turning and talking

10.14.4.5. Making thinking visible with some form of writing

10.14.5. Collaborative Learning - What the teacher is doing:

10.14.5.1. Providing opportunities for student collaboration

10.14.5.2. Organizing small groups

10.14.5.3. Facilitating or scaffolding small group work

10.14.5.4. Assessing student interactions and responses

10.14.5.5. Listening to students

10.14.5.6. Taking anecdotal notes

10.14.6. Collaborative Learning - What the students are doing:

10.14.6.1. Discussing ideas and concepts

10.14.6.2. Interacting with one another

10.14.6.3. Practicing a teaching point

10.14.6.4. Making connections between content and their own lives

10.14.6.5. Explaining processes

10.14.6.6. Checking one another's understanding

10.14.6.7. Making contributions to the joint effort or project

10.14.6.8. Reflecting upon & assessing group and personal learning

10.14.7. Independent Learning - What the teacher is doing:

10.14.7.1. Conferring with students

10.14.7.2. Observing and taking anecdotal notes

10.14.7.3. Assessing individual student responses

10.14.8. Independent Learning - What the students are doing:

10.14.8.1. Strategically and independently applying strategies and skills in authentic contexts

10.14.8.2. Taking responsibility for learning

10.14.8.3. Keeping records of learning

10.14.8.4. Reflecting upon personal growth

10.14.8.5. Assessing personal progress