Civil Rights Movement

Civil Rights Movement

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Civil Rights Movement by Mind Map: Civil Rights Movement

1. Montgomery Bus Boycott

2. Martin Luther King Jr.

3. Civil Rights Act

4. The NAACP

5. Plessy v. Ferguson

6. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

7. The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a civil rights protest during which African Americans refused to ride city buses in Montgomery, Alabama, to protest segregated seating. The boycott took place from December 5, 1955, to December 20, 1956, and is regarded as the first large-scale U.S. demonstration against segregation.

8. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was established in 1909 and is America’s oldest and largest civil rights organization. It was formed in New York City by white and black activists, partially in response to the ongoing violence against African Americans around the country. During the civil rights era, the group won major legal victories, and today the NAACP has more than 2,200 branches and some half a million members worldwide.

9. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which ended segregation in public places and banned employment discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion or sex, is considered one of the crowning legislative achievements of this movement. First proposed by President John F. Kennedy, it survived strong opposition from southern members of Congress and was then signed into law by Kennedy’s successor, Lyndon B. Johnson. In subsequent years, Congress expanded the act and passed additional civil rights legislation.

10. Plessy v. Ferguson was a landmark 1896 U.S. Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation under the “separate but equal” doctrine. The case stemmed from an 1892 incident in which African American Homer Plessy refused to sit in a car for blacks. Rejecting Plessy’s argument that his constitutional rights were violated, the Supreme Court ruled that a law that “implies merely a legal distinction” between whites and blacks was not unconstitutional. As a result, restrictive Jim Crow legislation and separate public accommodations based on race became commonplace.

11. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka was a landmark 1954 Supreme Court case in which the justices ruled unanimously that racial segregation of children in public schools was unconstitutional. Brown v. Board of Education was one of the cornerstones of the civil rights movement, and helped establish the precedent that “separate-but-equal” education and other services were, in fact, not equal at all.

12. Martin Luther King, Jr. was a social activist and Baptist minister who played a key role in the American civil rights movement from the mid-1950s until his assassination in 1968. King sought equality and human rights for African Americans, the economically disadvantaged and all victims of injustice through peaceful protest. King was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964 and is remembered each year on Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, a U.S. federal holiday since 1986.

13. https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/montgomery-bus-boycott https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/martin-luther-king-jr https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/civil-rights-act https://www.history.com/topics/civil-rights-movement/naacp https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/plessy-v-ferguson https://www.history.com/topics/black-history/brown-v-board-of-education-of-topeka