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Organizational Behavior by Mind Map: Organizational Behavior
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Organizational Behavior


Levels of Analysis

Occupation / Workgroup



5. Questions for Articles:

1. Argument

What was the author arguing (hypothesis) and, if empirical, was the argument supported?


2. Implications

What are the implications for practice and research?



3. Related constructs and their impact.

What other OB constructs are related, are impacted by, or have impact on this construct?

ASA Model: Over time organizations are defined by the persons in them as an outcome of the attraction-selection-attrition cycle. (Schneider 1987)

over time organizaions become homogenous with regard to the kinds of people in them (Schneider et all 1995)

founders and top management have long-term effects on organizations through this cycle (Schneider et all 1995)

1. List all things that need to be listed:

1. Worse List (Too Long)

õDefine all the constructs õList things that need to be listed (too long) õPhysical taint: ôOccupations directly associated with garbage, death etc (e.g. butcher) ôOccupations thought to be performed under noxious/dangerous conditions (e.g. miner) õSocial taint: ôOccupation with regular contact with people/groups that are themselves stigmatized (e.g. AIDS worker) ôOccupation in which workers appear to serve others (e.g. butler) õMoral taint: ôOccupation regarded as sinful or dubious in virtue (e.g. psychic) ôOccupation where worker is thought to employ methods that are deceptive, intrusive, confrontational or that otherwise defy norms of civility (e.g. bill collector)

1. Physical taint: ô Occupations directly associated with garbage, death etc (e.g. butcher) ô Occupations thought to be performed under noxious/ dangerous conditions (e.g. miner) Social taint: ô Occupation with regular contact with people/groups that are themselves stigmatized (e.g. AIDS worker) ô Occupation in which workers appear to serve others (e.g. butler) Moral taint: ô Occupation regarded as sinful or dubious in virtue (e.g. psychic) ô Occupation where worker is thought to employ methods that are deceptive, intrusive, confrontational or that otherwise defy norms of civility (e.g. bill collector)

2. Better List

õList things that need to be listed (better) ôPhysical taint: ógarbage, death etc (e.g. butcher) ónoxious/dangerous conditions (e.g. miner) ôSocial taint: óRegular contact w/stigmatized ppl/grps (AIDS worker) óAppear to serve others (e.g. butler) ôMoral taint: óregarded as sinful/dubious in virtue (e.g. psychic) óthought to employ deceptive, intrusive, confrontational methods or defy norms of civility (e.g. bill collector)

1. Physical taint: garbage, death etc (e.g. butcher) ó noxious/dangerous conditions (e.g. miner) ó Social taint: Regular contact w/stigmatized ppl/grps (AIDS worker) ó Appear to serve others (e.g. butler) ó Moral taint: regarded as sinful/dubious in virtue (e.g. psychic) ó thought to employ deceptive, intrusive, confrontational methods or defy norms of civility (e.g. bill collector) ó

Josh's Studies Wk 1 & 2


Self Efficacy

Organizational Citizenship Behaviors (OCB), Protecting organization from undeserved harm, making constructive suggestions, spreading goodwill

Counterproductive Work Behaviors (CWB), Absenteeism


Conduct Performance Appraisals to Improve Individual & Firm Performance, Obtain Accurate information about the individual's performance, Best Practices:, Observe and record performance frequently, Keep pertinent informatino of who, what, where when, and why only for performance diaries, Types of Job Performance Measurement Tools, Results Based (Can be really interesting), can be really interesting, Behavioral Approach (Best of the three!), Minimizes criterion deficiency, minimizes contamination, greater standardization across raters, less ambiguity and inconsistency in ratings, provides feedback on what htey can do, individuals react favorably to these isntruments, Graphic Rating Scale (Doesn't have any "so waht" built in to improve performance), Job Related Trait + 5-point scale, Comparative Approach (Pretty Hated), Pretty Hated, Training Options for Raters, "Frame of reference" to standardize rater perceptions, Training to improve observational skills, training to reduce classic rating errors, establish job-relevant performance dimensions defined in behavioral terms, establish examples of effective and ineffective performance, provide an interactive session for raters to observe, evaluate, and discuss individuals presented on video performing at different levels, provide participants with feedback on the accuracy of their ratings and additional opportunities to practice, communicate the appraisal to the individual in a manner that maintains a high-performance work culture, Goal Setting, involve employees in setting 3-7 goals to increase self-efficacy, employees should perceive that outcomes are actually valued, will lead to positive outcomes, and so on (Outcomes can be intrinsic or extrinsic rewards), How to Do a Performance Meeting p. 92 (Performance Feedback), Ask for self-assessment prior to performance meeting, Josh's Performance Appraisal: Rate on:, communication, Appropriate, ongoing learning, teamwork, relationship effectiveness, sharing knowledge


Design Training Systematically & Follow the Science of Training, Analyze Training Needs, Conduct Due Diligence, Describe Mission, strategy, structure, context, & Desired OUtcomes, Articulate benefits (indiviual, team, division, organiztaion, society, etc), Link solutions to specific org outcomes (performance, effectiveness, profitability), Consider impact on satisfaction, reputation, social capital (organizational performance-related factors), Frame cross-level effects of contextual factors on motivation learning & transfer, Estimate expected net present value of proposed training solutions, Pre-Training Transfer Analysis, Define Performance Requirements, Leverage established theories of performance, disagregate dependent variables to illuminate specific performance targeted by training, Describe relative importance of taskwork and teamwork processes, nuance key factors with, task inventories,, cognitive task analysis, and critical incident interviews, Conduct probed protocol anaysis to elicit the stimuli, goals, and actions of experts in natural situations, Map the trajectory of change from novice to expert performance, Define cognitive and affective states, Frame individual-level cogniitve (mental models, situation awareness) and affective (self-efficacy) states, describe mental model types (equipment, task, team) targeted for development, use event-based knowledge elicitation techniques with subject matter experts to describe shared states, model compositional or compilational emergence of cognitive and affective states, determine relative importance of sharedness and accuracy of cognitive and afective states, Define KSA (Knowledge, Skill, Attitudes) Attributes, Specify direct determinants of the processes and emergent states comprising effective performance, Leverage knowledge and skill inventories, skill repositories, and performance records, Describe the declarative, procedural, and strateggic knowledge applied to enact performance processes, Describe the attitudes that can be changed as a result of the learning process, Descrieb short-, mid-, and long-term competency requirements given alternative performance requirements, Delineate Learning Objectives, Develop Training Content, Design Learning Architecture, Forge instructional experiences, Develop assessment tools, Set the STage for Learning, Deliver blended solution, Support transfer and maintenance, Evaluate Training, Execute Evaluation Plan, Gauge trainee learning, Gauge team learning, Disseminate training results


Personal Factors, INtelligence (GMA), Personality: Conscienciousness & Emotional Stability, Big 5 Personality, Aggreableness, Extroversion, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability (Neuroticism), Openness to Experience, Interpersonal Skills

Corporate Tools, Structured Interviews, Psychometric Profiles, Big 5 Personality, GMA Measures

Midterm Review

1. Exam Overview

1:00-3:45 Tuesday, 4/2/13 in ACB126Notes: 5 pagesBoth sidesNormal letter size paper“Original” work – no sharing/“no” copy & paste Bring a flash drive to save as you goNo books, no articles3 short questions (20-30 mins each)1 case study (about 1 hour)Email answers and save when done

2. Tips on Prep:

1. Be very comfortable with your summaries.

2. Summarize your summaries, 1. Bad Example, 2. Good Example

3. Know/write down the take away from each reading in a couple of sentences

4. Define all constructs

Focus primarily on what has been covered in class

Get guidance from the slides –study questions in each week

Answering Questions

Overview of the Course Thus Far

1. Introduction (wks 1 & 2) 16-17: - Central Characteristics of OB - Theory X & Theory Y, 1. Four central characteristics of OB, 2. How do characteristics interact with readings?, 3. Trends (Rousseau), 1. What do trends mean for future of OB?, 2. How do trends affect your interpretation of other readings?, 4. Theory X & Theory Y, 1. Compare/contrast Table of major features?, 2. What are the benefits & consequences?, 3. Are these theories mutually exclusive?, 4. Are these theories more appropriate in certain industries/circumstances/environments?, 5. Systems Theory, 1. Do you buy-in to the major components of organizations as open systems? Why/why not?, 6. Context (Johns), 1. Is context important? When/why or why not? Be able to identify impact of context on readings, 7. Diversity (Harrison), 1. What are the key strengths & weaknesses of this study?, 2. How is your assessment of this study impacted by your understanding of trends (Rousseau) & context (Johns)?, 3. Are there types of diversity you would encourage v. avoid as a manager?, 1. What types?, 2. Under what circumstances (e.g., Theory X/Theory Y)? Why/why not?

2. Individual Level 18 - Personality Dimensions, 1. Personality Dimensions, 2. What are these & why are they important?, 3. Are certain personality types more desirable than others (context)? Why or why not?, 4. Locke Chapters 1-3, 9, 5. What individual-level characteristics are the authors advocating? Are they correct?, 6. What are the advantages/drawbacks of focusing on these characteristics?, 7. Relate desired individual-level characteristics to trends (Rousseau), organization-level theories (Theories X & Y, Systems Theory), diversity (Harrison), …, 8. What factors create good/sustainable person-organization fit?

3. Emotion 19, 1. Emotional labor, 1. What is it? Why do we care?, 2. Emotional intelligence – what are the strengths & limitations of developing EQ?, 1. Consider trends (Rousseau/Byron), context (Johns), diversity (Harrison), 3. During organizational change (Mossholder), 1. Is emotion bad? When is it good?, 2. How do you encourage “good” emotion during change?, 3. What role does uncertainty & avoidance play during change?

4. Training & Identity (20-21), 1. Locke Chapters 4-5, 1. Identify steps of systematic training design, implementation, & evaluation, 2. Identify characteristics of effective performance appraisal systems, 3. What impact could individual-level characteristics, trends, & diversity have on effective training & performance appraisal design & implementation?, 2. The ASA Model (Schneider, Goldstein, & Smith), 1. What is it? Why is this model important?, 2. What are the alternative explanations?, 3. How does this model relate to “dirty work” & positive identity (Ashforth & Kreiner)?, 4. How does this model relate to trends, especially diversity?, 5. How does this model relate to emotional labor?, 6. What is the role of leaders?

5. Identity (22), 1. Dirty Work (Ashforth & Kreiner), 1. How do authors define “dirty work” & the components?, 1. How are components affected by trends, especially diversity & major events/changes in social significance?, 2. What are main reasons cited for development of strong cultures?, 1. What role do Reframing, Recalibrating, & Refocusing processes play?, 3. What implications does this have for identifying & managing “dirty workers” w/in your organization?

6. Stress & Burnout (23), 1. Define stress, 1. What are the causes/consequences?, 2. What is the role of emotion?, 2. Define burnout (Maslach, Schaufeli, & Leiter), 1. What are the elements of burnout?, 2. What personality characteristics/situational factors reduce chance of burnout (according to authors)?, 3. What are the three dimensions?, 4. Define engagement. Is engagement the opposite of burnout?, 3. What are effective coping techniques? (Locke Ch. 24), 1. What links can you find between the coping techniques & strong “dirty work” culture development?, 2. Can systematic training development/implementation (Locke Ch. 4) assist in cultivating effective coping strategies?, 3. How does emotion during organizational change (Mossholder) relate to these coping strategies?

7. Mentoring (24, 1. What are the different mentoring models? (Higgins & Kram), 1. Under which circumstances could traditional v. new model/developmental networks be more effective?, 2. How does mentoring relate to emotion & stress/burnout?, 2. What types of developmental networks would you recommend for your organization & why?, 1. What individual-level characteristics did you consider?, 2. What context/trends/situational factors did you consider?, 3. What organizational-level characteristics did you consider?, 3. According to the authors, what are the implications of traditional v. new model/developmental networks?

8. Motivatoin - 26, 1. Identify the stages of content & process theories, 1. How are the stages & theories interrelated/ exclusive?, 2. Relate these stages to trends, organizational-level theories, the “dirty work” socialization process, 2. What are the implications of perceived inequity?, 1. What effect do individual differences appear to have on perceptions of inequity?, 3. Goal-Setting (Locke Chapter 8), 4. Empowerment (Locke Chapter 10), 1. What are important aspects of effective goal-setting?, 2. What is potential impact of improper goal-setting?, 3. What are the benefits/drawbacks of employee empowerment?, 4. How does author define empowerment?, 1. How does organizational context play a role?, 5. Performance (Locke Chapters 11 & 12), 1. How do the authors define performance/incentive?, 2. Are these definitions universally applicable?, 3. How does type of organization play a role in defining performance & recognition of improvement?, 6. Procedural Justice (Locke Chapter 13), 1. How do contextual factors & individual characteristics play a role in perceptions of fairness?, 2. What are different ways to establish equity & when might they be appropriate?, 7. Explore relationships between compensation (Igalens & Roussel), other incentives (Van Yperen & Hagedoorn), motivation theories, performance (Locke Chapters) & job satisfaction, 1. Which model(s) would you implement in your own organization?, 2. What are the organizational-level, individual-level, & contextual dimensions you identified when making this decision?

9. Work-Related Attitudes & Turnover (27-28), 1. What are the four theories of job satisfaction we discussed in class?, 1. Be able to compare and contrast, 2. Why is job satisfaction such an important outcome to employers?, 3. How can we increase mental challenge in their work?, 1. Downsides and Boundary conditions?, 4. What organizational outcomes can we assess to understand the job satisfaction level of an organization’s employees?, 5. What are the 3 types of organizational commitment? (Meyer & Allen, 1984), 6. List the ways in which organizational commitment be increased?

Questions from Slides

What are Primary & Secondary diversity? (Wk. 1)