My vocab BIO

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My vocab BIO by Mind Map: My vocab BIO

1. Interspecific Competition: in ecology, is a form of competition in which individuals of different species compete for the same resources in an ecosystem

1.1. Intraspecific Competition: is an interaction in population ecology, whereby members of the same species compete for limited resources

1.1.1. Predator Prey: An interaction between two organisms of unlike species in which one of them acts as a predator that captures and feeds on the other organism that serves as the prey

1.1.1.1. Mutualistic: re defined as interactions between organisms of two different species, in which each organism benefits from the interaction in some way

1.1.1.1.1. Commensalism: a relationship between individuals of two species in which one species obtains food or other benefits from the other without either harming or benefiting the latter.

2. Biotic:living component of an ecosystem water, light, wind, soil, humidity, minerals, gases and more.

2.1. Abiotic:efer to non-living physical and chemical elements in the ecosystem.

2.1.1. Tolerance Curve:Abiotic (non-living) factors that influence where a species can live.

2.1.1.1. Acclimation:result of becoming accustomed to a new climate or to new conditions.

2.1.1.1.1. Conformers:organism whose internal environment is highly influenced by external factors

3. F1 generation: first filial generation

3.1. F2 generation:second filial generation is the generation of individuals which arises as a result of inbreeding of interbreeding amongst individuals of F1 generation.

3.1.1. Dominant Factor:refers to the relationship between two versions of a gene.

3.1.1.1. Recessive Factor:gene is a gene that can be masked by a dominant gene.

4. G1: stands for GAP 1

4.1. S: stands for Synthesis

4.1.1. G2: stands for GAP 2

5. Replication Fork:a structure that forms within the long helical DNA during DNA replication.

5.1. Leading Strand:The leading strand is a single DNA strand that, during DNA replication

5.1.1. Lagging Strand: The lagging strand is the strand of nascent DNA whose direction of synthesis is opposite to the direction of the growing replication fork.

5.1.1.1. Transcription:a written or printed representation of something.

5.1.1.1.1. mRNA:he spike protein is found on the surface of the virus that causes COVID-19. COVID-19 mRNA vaccines are given in the upper arm muscle. Once the instructions (mRNA) are inside the immune cells, the cells use them to make the protein piece.

6. DNA Replication:process by which DNA makes a copy of itself during cell division.

6.1. Genome:the haploid set of chromosomes in a gamete or microorganism, or in each cell of a multicellular organism.

6.1.1. Helicase:enzymes that bind and may even remodel nucleic acid or nucleic acid protein complexes

7. Matter: "Matter, material substance that constitutes the observable universe and, together with energy, forms the basis of all objective phenomen"

7.1. Mass: Is the measure of matter in object. (picture) >>>>>>>>>

7.2. Law of conservation of matter: "transfer of matter, the amount of matter in the system stays constant".

8. Reservoir: "normally lives, grows, and multiplies. Reservoirs include humans, animals, and the environment"

8.1. Residence Time: "mount of material in the reservoir, divided by either the inflow or the outflow (they are equal when the reservoir is at equilibrium)".

8.1.1. Process: events pass from the future through the present to the past.

9. Cohesion: Attraction of molecules for other kinds of molecules.

9.1. Capillarity: Surface of a liquid where there is contact with a solid.

9.2. Hydrogen Bonding: Attraction between a partially charge that is positive (hydrogen)

9.3. Solution: A homogeneous mixture of solvent.

10. Hypothesis:educated guess based on knowledge or observations.💆

10.1. Question: When you ask something about a topic or anything.

11. Scientific Method: Observations and assumptions.

11.1. Observation: The data being collected mostly during an experiment.

12. Iterative Process: collaborative effrot.

12.1. Peer Review: The process in which an article is seen by more experts in one field.

13. Control group: A variable that is being studied and experimented.

13.1. Independent Variable: Changes or controls.

14. Quantitative Observations: Relating to measuring or the quantity of something.

14.1. Equilibrium: The state of balance.

15. Qualitative Observations: Research process.

15.1. Concentration: "The measure of the amount of a sub-component (especially solute) in a solution"

15.2. Prediction:Making a guess to the outcome of a situation.

16. Graphing - DRY MIX:Can help decide between two varibles.

16.1. Dependent Variable: A variable.

17. Reasoning: Biological "reasoning"

17.1. Evidence: The support to a theory or hypothesis.

17.1.1. Claim: A statement or conclusion that answers a question or problem.

18. Robert Hooke: Robert Hooke was a English scientist. He also used microscope to visualize a microorganism.

18.1. Anton Van Leeuwenhoek: Was a scientist in the golden age of dutch science and tech.

18.1.1. Gregor Mendel: He was a meteorologist, biologist, and more.

19. Cell theory: The theory is that living organisms and that cells are from cells that already existed.

19.1. 8 Cellular Basis for Life: All organisms are made of cells.

20. Eukaryotes: An organism with cells in the genetic material is DNA in a chromosome form.

20.1. Cell: The smallest structural and functional organism.

20.2. Nucleus: A organelle in the eukaryotic cells and round.

20.3. Ribosomes: A particle with RNA and associated protein found in higher numbers in the cytoplasm in cells.

21. Plasma Membrane: A microscopic membrane of lipids and proteins.

21.1. Mitochondria: membrane-bound cell organelles. In the mitochondria there are stored molecules.

21.1.1. Prokaryotes: A cellular organism.

21.2. Osmosis: A process by when Molecules of solvent go through a semipermeable membrane. (Equalizing the concentration on each side of the membrane.

21.3. Carrier Protein: A membrane transport protein which is the movement of ions.

21.3.1. Ion Channels:Are pore-forming membrane proteins that help ion pass through channels.

22. Hypotonic: The outside of a cell with higher concentration. Attracts water molecules and then shrinking the cell.

22.1. Hypertonic: Higher osmotic pressure than any fluid.

22.2. isotonic: The solutions on any side of a cell membrane.

23. Contractile Vacuoles: A valuable in some protozoans that resales excess liquid on contraction.

23.1. Concentration Gradient:Particles that move through a solution or gas.

23.2. Plasmolysis: A contraction of the protoplasm that comes from a plant cell.

24. Cytolysis: The dissolution or disruption of cells.

24.1. Compounds: A substance that has two or more elements.

24.1.1. Turgor Pressure: The pressure is the force within the cell wall.

25. Element: A substance that cant be decomposed into simpler substances.

25.1. Periodic Table: A table of the chemical elements and they are also in the order of atomic number.

26. Proton: Is a positively charges particle that resides in the nucleus.

26.1. Neutrons: A particle of the same mass as a proton but it has no electric charge.

26.1.1. Electrons: A stable atomic particle that has a negative charge.

27. Isotopes: Multiple area form of an element that has protons but a different amount of neutrons.

27.1. Hydrolysis:chemical break down.

27.1.1. Carbonation:chemical reaction of carbon dioxide to give carbonates.

27.1.1.1. Erosion: destruction of a surface.

28. Covalent Bonds: Holds atoms together in a molecule

28.1. Ionic Bonds: "attractions between oppositely charges atoms"

29. Inorganic: molecules that do not contain carbon-hydrogen bonds.

29.1. Organic: Containing carbon-based compounds.

30. Polymers: What makes multiple materials in living organism.

31. Carbohydrates

31.1. Monosaccharides: A form of carbohydrates.

31.1.1. Polysaccharides: Large amount of molecules made of many smaller monosaccharides. (Sugar)

31.1.1.1. Weight: The quality of being heavy

32. Proteins: A large biomolecules or macromolecules.

32.1. Amino Acids: Small molecules that are building blocks of protien>>>>>>>

33. Lipids: A Various organic compounds that are insoluble in water.

33.1. Fatty Acids: Molecules that are long chains of lipids.

33.1.1. Phospholipid: Lipids whose molecule has a hydrophilic.

34. Nucleic Acids: Biopolymers or large biomolecules which are forms of life.

34.1. Adhesion: The ability to stick to an unlike substance for example attraction between unlike molecules.

34.2. DNA: A molecule that contains biological things that makes each kind unique.

34.2.1. RNA: Nucleic acids and expressions of genes.

34.2.1.1. Bases: The different bases in the DNA (four).

35. Polarity: "A fundamental property of a biological system"

35.1. Enzymes: protiens that act biological catalysts

36. Waters temperature moderation: "Water is able to absorb heat -- without increasing much in temperature -- better than many substances. The amount of heat required to change the temperature of 1 g of any substance by 1°C is defined as high specific heat".

36.1. Diffusion: Natural movement of their particles.

37. Mixture: Heterogeneous form of matter (mixtures)

37.1. Solevent : A molecule that has the ability to dissolve other molecules as well.

37.1.1. Oxidation: "the process or result of oxidizing or being oxidized."

37.1.1.1. Hydrolysis

37.1.2. Solute: A solute that is a substance that can be dissolves by another solvent.

38. Acids: Substances that donate substances.

38.1. pH Scale: "(chemistry) p(otential of) H(ydrogen); the logarithm of the reciprocal of hydrogen-ion concentration in gram atoms per liter; provides a measure on a scale from 0 to 14 of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution (where 7 is neutral and greater than 7 is acidic and less than 7 is basic)."

38.1.1. Buffers: Organic substances that consist PH.

39. Biosphere layer of the planet Earth

39.1. Hydrosphere: The amount of water on a planet.

39.1.1. Lithosphere: Solid (the outer part of Earth).

39.1.1.1. Atmosphere: Multiple gasses surrounding the Earth.

40. Water Cycle: Allow the water to move around Earth and so much other great things.

40.1. Evaporation: "process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas or vapor." ( like a path)

40.1.1. Transpiration: vaporation of water from plants

40.1.1.1. Condensation: When two small molecules join together from a bigger one and then removing groups that form a small molecule, often water.

40.1.1.1.1. Precipitation: is any liquid that is forms in the atmosphere and after falls back to Earth.

41. Seepage: Rainwater that seeps into the ground.

41.1. Root Uptake: Observation of water

41.1.1. Physical weathering: When rocks break down without changing chemicals.

41.1.1.1. Frost wedging: " form of physical weathering that involves the repeated freezing and thawing of water in areas with extremely cold weather. When water freezes, it expands"

42. Plant/Bio Action: (couldn't find a definition)

42.1. Winda Abrasion: Wearing away a solid object ue to the impact of particles carried by the wind.

42.1.1. Water Abrasion: process of erosion.

42.1.1.1. Surface area-to-volume ratio:The amount of surface per are.

42.1.1.2. Glacial Abrasion:"s the surface wear achieved by individual clasts, or rocks of various sizes, contained within ice or by subglacial sediment as the glacier slides over bedrock"

42.1.1.2.1. Pressure Unloading / Exfoliation: occurs when reduced due to uplift or erosion.

43. Small Scale: Small-scale molecular systems biology.

43.1. Surface runoff: "Surface runoff is water, from rain, snowmelt, or other sources, that flows over the land surface, and is a major component of the water cycle."

43.1.1. Coastal Erosion: Loss of land because of waves.

43.1.1.1. VS

43.1.1.1.1. Large Scale: including large amounts.

44. Autotroph: Organisms that produce food for themselfs by just using light, water, and chemicalas.

44.1. Heterotroph: Eats other animals and plants for energy.

44.1.1. photosynthesis: Producing procces done by plants, sun, and others.

44.1.1.1. calvin cycle: "he Calvin cycle is a process that plants and algae use to turn carbon dioxide from the air into sugar, the food autotrophs need to grow. Every living thing on Earth depends on the Calvin cycle. Plants depend on the Calvin cycle for energy and food".

44.1.1.1.1. 3 Factors that affect photosynthesis: 1.light intensity. 2.carbon dioxide 3.concentration. temperature.

45. Biochemical pathway: A very long chain of reactions.

45.1. Light Reaction: "term used for the reactions of photosynthesis that use the energy stored by the light-dependent reactions to form glucose and other carbohydrate molecules."

45.1.1. Translation: translating the sequence of a messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule

45.1.1.1. Peptide Bondsamide:type of covalent chemical bond linking two consecutive alpha-amino acids from C1

45.1.1.1.1. codons: is a trinucleotide sequence of DNA or RNA that corresponds to a specific amino acid.

46. Chloroplast: Something that contains chlorophyll.

46.1. Thylakoid: "a flattened sac or vesicle lined with a pigmented membrane that is the site of photosynthesis, in plants and algae occurring in interconnected stacks constituting a granum of the chloroplast, and in other photosynthesizing organisms occurring either singly or as part of the cell membrane or other structure."

46.1.1. Granum: A membranous structer that it stacked.

46.1.1.1. Stroma: A tissue of an epithelial organ, tumor, gonad, etc., consisting of connective tissues and blood vessels.

46.1.1.1.1. Stormata : A tiny pore on a leaf that is used to change gass.

47. Visible Spectrum: A color that is visible that to human eye.

47.1. Pigments: A colored material that is insoluble in water

47.1.1. carotenoids: Are plantpigments that are colors in bright red, yellow and orange hues in many fruits and vegetables.

47.1.1.1. accessory pigments: light-absorbing compounds that work in chlorophyll a.

47.1.1.1.1. Random Assortment:chromosomes refers to the way chromosomes get organized into daughter cells during gamete (sperm and egg) formation.

47.1.2. P generation: refers to the first set of parents crossed.

48. Chlorophyll a: "The main difference between chlorophyll A and B is their role in photosynthesis; chlorophyll A is the principal pigment involved in the photosynthesis whereas chlorophyll B is the accessory pigment, collecting the energy in order to pass into chlorophyll A."

48.1. DNA:organism and tells cells what proteins to make.

48.1.1. Double Helix: A studcture of DNA.

48.1.1.1. RNA: "ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Its principal role is to act as a messenger carrying instructions from DNA for controlling the synthesis of proteins, although in some viruses RNA rather than DNA carries the genetic information."

48.2. Chlorophyll b: The main difference between chlorophyll A and B is their role in photosynthesis; chlorophyll A is the principal pigment involved in the photosynthesis whereas chlorophyll B is the accessory pigment, collecting the energy in order to pass into chlorophyll A.

49. NADPH: "Description. NADPH is the reduced form of NADP+; used in anabolic reactions, such as lipid and nucleic acid synthesis, which require NADPH as a reducing agent. It has a role as a fundamental metabolite and a cofactor. It is a NAD(P)H and a NADP. It is a conjugate acid of a NADPH(4-)."

49.1. light independent reactions: they are not directly driven by light.

50. C3 Plants: "C3 plants include some of the most important sources of calories all over the world: cowpea, cassava, soybean, and rice. The regions where these crops are grown in are often hot and dry, meaning they could benefit from the energy-saving mechanisms of C4 photosynthesis."

50.1. C4 Plants: "C4 plants—including maize, sugarcane, and sorghum—avoid photorespiration by using another enzyme called PEP during the first step of carbon fixation. This step takes place in the mesophyll cells that are located close to the stomata where carbon dioxide and oxygen enter the plant".

50.2. CAM Plants: Jade plants.

51. - Cellular Respiration: "Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert chemical energy from oxygen molecules or nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products".

51.1. Glucose: A type of sugar in blood and very important for blood cells.

51.1.1. ATP: "Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), energy-carrying molecule found in the cells of all living things. ATP captures chemical energy obtained from the breakdown of food molecules and releases it to fuel other cellular processes."

51.1.1.1. Glycolysis: the breakdown of glucose by enzymes, releasing energy and pyruvic acid.

51.1.1.1.1. - Fermentation: "the chemical breakdown of a substance by bacteria, yeasts, or other microorganisms, typically involving effervescence and the giving off of heat."

52. - Electron Transport Chain: "series of four protein complexes that couple redox reactions, creating an electrochemical gradient that leads to the creation of ATP in a complete system named oxidative phosphorylation. It occurs in mitochondria in both cellular respiration and photosynthesis"

52.1. Aerobic: "An aerobic environment is characterized by the presence of free oxygen (O2) while an anaerobic environment lacks free oxygen but may contain atomic oxygen bound in compounds such as nitrate (NO3), nitrite (NO2), and sulfites (SO3)."

52.1.1. Anaerobic: "An aerobic environment is characterized by the presence of free oxygen (O2) while an anaerobic environment lacks free oxygen but may contain atomic oxygen bound in compounds such as nitrate (NO3), nitrite (NO2), and sulfites (SO3)."

53. - ATP made in glycolysis: 2 ATP, 2 NADH, and 2 pyruvate molecules

53.1. - ATP made in krebs cycle: "The Krebs cycle produces the CO2 that you breath out. This stage produces most of the energy ( 34 ATP molecules, compared to only 2 ATP for glycolysis and 2 ATP for Krebs cycle). The electron transport chain takes place in the mitochondria. This stage converts the NADH into ATP."

53.1.1. - ATP made in electron transport chain: takes place in the mitochondria.

54. - Lactic Acid Fermentation:"Lactic acid fermentation is a metabolic process by which glucose or other six-carbon sugars (also, disaccharides of six-carbon sugars, e.g. sucrose or lactose) are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate, which is lactic acid in solution".

54.1. - Ethanol Alcohol Fermentation: "Alcoholic fermentation is a complex biochemical process during which yeasts convert sugars to ethanol, carbon dioxide, and other metabolic byproducts that contribute to the chemical composition and sensorial properties of the fermented foodstuffs".

55. - Biological Processes: occurring in living organisms to live. The biological processes contain any number of chemical reactions or other events those results in a transformation. Regulation of biological processes occurs where any process is modulated in its frequency, extent or rate.

55.1. - Physical Processes: "on Earth create constant change. These processes—including movement in the tectonic plates in the crust, wind and water erosion, and deposition—shape features on Earth's surface."

56. - Carbon Cycle: "the series of processes by which carbon compounds are interconverted in the environment, involving the incorporation of carbon dioxide into living tissue by photosynthesis and its return to the atmosphere through respiration, the decay of dead organisms, and the burning of fossil fuels."

56.1. Sedimentation: the process of settling or being deposited as a sediment.

56.1.1. Consumption: the using up of a resource.

56.1.1.1. - Decomposition: the state or process of rotting; decay.

57. Fossil Fuel Formation: After millions of years underground, the compounds that make up plankton and plants turn into fossil fuels. Plankton decomposes into natural gas and oil, while plants become coal. Today, humans extract these resources through coal mining and the drilling of oil and gas wells on land and offshore.

57.1. - Volcanic Activity: Volcanoes can contribute to air pollution through the release of toxic gases, which can include water vapor, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride, along with trace amounts of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen fluoride.

57.1.1. - Combustion: the process of burning something.

57.1.1.1. Deforestation: "is the permanent removal of trees to make room for something besides forest. This can include clearing the land for agriculture or grazing, or using the timber for fuel, construction or manufacturing"

58. James Watson:"James Dewey Watson KBE is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist. In 1953, he co-authored with Francis Crick the academic paper proposing the double helix structure of the DNA molecule"

58.1. Francis Crick:Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist. In 1953, he co-authored with James Watson the academic paper proposing the double helix structure of the DNA molecule".

58.1.1. Rosalind Franklin:English chemist and X-ray crystallographer whose work was central to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA, RNA, viruses, coal, and graphite

59. Nucleotides:building block of nucleic acids

59.1. Sugar:he term sugar is the generic term for any disaccharides and monosaccharides.

59.1.1. Phosphate Group:consists of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms

59.1.1.1. Nitrogenous Base:A molecule that contains nitrogen and has the chemical properties of a base

60. Adenine:a compound which is one of the four constituent bases of nucleic acids. A purine derivative, it is paired with thymine in double-stranded DNA.

60.1. Cytosine:a compound found in living tissue as a constituent base of nucleic acids. It is paired with guanine in double-stranded DNA.

60.1.1. Guanine: a compound that occurs in guano and fish scales, and is one of the four constituent bases of nucleic acids. A purine derivative, it is paired with cytosine in double-stranded DNA.

60.1.1.1. Thymine:a compound which is one of the four constituent bases of nucleic acids. A pyrimidine derivative, it is paired with adenine in double-stranded DNA.

60.1.1.1.1. Purines:endogenous and exogenous. Exogenous purines are absorbed by the body through the foods that you eat, whereas, endogenous purines are made directly by the body itself.

61. RNA Primase:enzyme that synthesizes short RNA sequences called primers

61.1. DNA Polymerasea member of a family of enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of DNA molecules from nucleoside triphosphates

61.1.1. DNA Ligase:enzyme which can connect two strands of DNA together by forming a bond between the phosphate group of one strand and the deoxyribose group on another.

61.1.1.1. RNA Polymerase: main transcription enzyme.

62. Mutation:the action or process of mutating.

62.1. Cancer:An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, in some cases, to metastasize (spread).

62.1.1. Uracil:a compound found in living tissue as a constituent base of RNA. In DNA its place is taken by thymine.

62.1.1.1. Ribosomes:a minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins.

62.1.1.1.1. Amino Acids: "organic compounds that combine to form proteins. Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids to make proteins to help the body: Break down food."

63. Chromosome:"a long DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material of an organism"

63.1. Histones:" family of basic proteins that associate with DNA in the nucleus and help condense it into chromatin".

63.1.1. Chromatid:one half of a duplicated chromosome

63.1.1.1. Centromere:The centromere is the specialized DNA sequence of a chromosome that links a pair of sister chromatids.

63.1.1.2. Chromatin:a complex of DNA and protein found in eukaryotic cells

64. Karyotype: "number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species."

64.1. Autosome: A chromosome thats not a sex chromosome.

64.1.1. Homologous Chromosomes:two pieces of DNA within a diploid organism which carry the same gene

65. Sex Chromosomes: The human sex. Females have two X chromosomes in their cells, while males have both X and a Y chromosomes in their cells.

65.1. X chromosome:(in humans and other mammals) a sex chromosome, two of which are normally present in female cells (designated XX) and only one in male cells (designated XY).

65.1.1. Y chromosome:(in humans and other mammals) a sex chromosome, two of which are normally present in female cells (designated XX) and only one in male cells (designated XY).

66. Diploid: containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent.

66.1. 2N:The total number of chromosomes in diploid cells is described as 2n

66.1.1. Haploid: Diploid describes a cell that contain two copies of each chromosome.

66.1.1.1. N:The number of chromosomes in a single set is represented as n

66.1.1.1.1. Binary Fission:"asexual reproduction by a separation of the body into two new bodies. In the process of binary fission,"

67. Mitosis: four basic phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

67.1. Interphase: The nuclear DNA is duplicated.

67.1.1. Cleavage Furrow

68. Prophase: the first stage of cell division in both mitosis and meiosis.

68.1. Metaphase: The second stage of cell division.

68.1.1. Cleavage Furrow:e indentation of the cell's surface that begins the progression of cleavage

68.1.1.1. Centrosomes:an organelle near the nucleus of a cell which contains the centrioles (in animal cells) and from which the spindle fibers develop in cell division

68.2. Anaphase: stage of meiotic or mitotic cell division in which the chromosomes move away from one another to opposite poles of the spindle.

68.2.1. Telophase: final phase of cell division, between anaphase and interphase, in which the chromatids or chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and two nuclei are formed.

68.2.1.1. Cytokinesis:cytoplasmic division of a cell at the end of mitosis or meiosis, bringing about the separation into two daughter cells.

69. Meiosis: "type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell"

69.1. Gametes:Gametes are an organism's reproductive cells.

69.1.1. Sperm Cells: No definition

69.1.1.1. Egg Cells; female reproductive cell, or gamete, in most anisogamous organisms

69.1.1.1.1. Zygote:a diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes; a fertilized ovum.

70. Meiosis 1:hromosomes in a diploid cecll resegregate, producing four haploid daughter cells. It is this step in meiosis that generates genetic diversity.

70.1. Meiosis 2:hromatids of each chromosome are segregated equally into daughter cells

70.1.1. Nondisjunction:failure of one or more pairs of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate normally during nuclear division, usually resulting in an abnormal distribution of chromosomes in the daughter nuclei.

70.1.1.1. Spermatogenesis:he production or development of mature spermatozoa.

70.1.1.1.1. Oogenesis: the production or development of an ovum.

71. Characteristics: Cellular organization, reproduction, metabolism, homeostasis, heredity, response to stimuli, growth and development, and adaptation through evolution.

71.1. Trait: A charaterstic of an organism.

72. Pollination: is the act of transferring pollen grains from the male anther of a flower to the female stigma.

72.1. Cross pollination :pollination of a flower or plant with pollen from another flower or plant.

72.1.1. Self pollination: the pollination of a flower by pollen from the same flower or from another flower on the same plant.

72.1.1.1. Anther: the part of a stamen that contains the pollen.

72.1.1.1.1. Stigma: The part of the pistil where pollen germinates. Ovary: The enlarged basal portion of the pistil where ovules are produced. (the middle).

73. Law of segregation: inheritance is a type of biological

73.1. Recessive Factor: gene is a gene that can be masked by a dominant gene

73.1.1. Law of segregation: inheritance is a type of biological

73.1.1.1. Law of independent assortment: separate from one another when reproductive cells develop

74. Molecular genetics: is the study of the molecular structure of DNA

74.1. Dominant alleles: is a variation of a gene that will produce a certain phenotype, even in the presence of other alleles.

74.1.1. Recessive Alleles: a variation of a gene that will produce a certain phenotype

74.1.1.1. Genotype: the genetic constitution of an individual organism.

74.1.1.1.1. Phenotype: the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.

75. Homozygous dominant: genotype is one in which both alleles are dominant. For example, in pea plants

75.1. Heterozygous: having two different alleles of a particular gene or genes.

75.1.1. Homozygous Recessive: allele combination contains two recessive alleles and expresses the recessive phenotype

75.1.1.1. Monohybrid Cross: is a genetic mix between two individuals who have homozygous.

75.1.1.1.1. Punnett Square:square diagram that is used to predict the genotypes of a particular cross

76. Interdependence: Animals and other things depend on each other.

76.1. Biosphere: A part of Earth where living things exist.

76.1.1. Biome: A major ecological community of organisms adapted to a particular climatic or environmental condition on a large geographic area in which they occur

76.1.1.1. Ecosystem: made up of both living and non-living parts

76.1.1.1.1. Community:efers to the assemblage of interacting organisms

77. Migration:seasonal movement of animals from one region to another.

77.1. Hibernation:is a state of minimal activity and metabolic depression

77.1.1. Niche:encompasses both the physical and environmental conditions it requires

77.1.1.1. Generalists: way to identify what kinds of food and habitat resources it relies on to survive

77.1.1.1.1. Specialist:species can thrive only in a narrow range of environmental conditions or has a limited diet.

78. Food Chain: "A food chain outlines who eats whom. A food web is all of the food chains in an ecosystem. Each organism in an ecosystem occupies a specific trophic level or position in the food chain or web. Producers, who make their own food using photosynthesis or chemosynthesis, make up the bottom of the trophic pyramid"

78.1. Food web: A food web is a graphical model depicting the many food chains linked together to show the feeding relationships of organisms in an ecosystem

78.1.1. 10% energy transfer rule: "The 10% rule states that between one trophic level to the next only 10% of the energy is passed on to the next. So if producers have 10,000 J of energy stored through photosynthesis, then only 1000 J is passed on to primary consumers"

78.1.1.1. Nitrogen: "he chemical element of atomic number 7, a colorless, odorless unreactive gas that forms about 78 percent of the earth's atmosphere. Liquid nitrogen (made by distilling liquid air) boils at 77.4 kelvins (−195.8°C) and is used as a coolant"

78.1.1.1.1. Nitrogen Fixation:"he chemical processes by which atmospheric nitrogen is assimilated into organic compounds, especially by certain microorganisms as part of the nitrogen cycle"

79. Ammonification: s the process by which microorganisms present in soil, sediment, or water mineralize low molecular weight, dissolved, organic molecules presenting amine or amide groups

79.1. Ammonium:cation is a positively charged polyatomic ion with the chemical formula NH

79.1.1. Nitirifcation: is the biological oxidation of ammonia to nitrite followed by the oxidation of the nitrite to nitrate occurring through separate organisms or direct ammonia oxidation to nitrate in comammox bacteria.

79.1.1.1. Nitrite: is an intermediate product of the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate.

79.1.1.1.1. Nitrate: is an inorganic, water-soluble chemical. Your body makes around 62 milligrams (mg) of nitrites a day, but the majority of nitrates come from your diet.

80. Charles Darwin: Studied a lot about evolution.

80.1. Descent with modification: refers to the passing on of traits from parent organisms to their offspring

80.1.1. Natural Selection: "the process whereby organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and produce more offspring. The theory of its action was first fully expounded by Charles Darwin and is now believed to be the main process that brings about evolution"

80.1.1.1. Survival of the fittest: "the continued existence of organisms which are best adapted to their environment, with the extinction of others, as a concept in the Darwinian theory of evolution."

80.1.1.1.1. Convergent Evolution: In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related (not monophyletic), independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches

81. Co-Evolution: "the influence of closely associated species on each other in their evolution".

81.1. Evidence of evolution: Fossils of living things that are no longer around and the absence of modern organisms from the fossil record has always been the most solid evidence of macro-evolution.

81.1.1. Embryonic similarities: Many traits of one type of animal appear in the embryo of another type of anima

81.1.1.1. Fossil records: "A fossil record is a group of fossils which has been analyzed and arranged chronologically and in taxonomic order."

81.1.1.1.1. Homologous / Vestigial structures: is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different species

82. Pathogens: a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease

82.1. Skin: The skin is the outermost protective covering of an organism.

82.1.1. Mucus and Cilia: "The mucus traps smaller particles like pollen or smoke. Hairlike structures called cilia line the mucous membrane and move the particles trapped in the mucus out of the nose. Inhaled air is moistened, warmed, and cleansed by the tissue that lines the nasal cavity."

82.1.1.1. Saliva: watery liquid secreted into the mouth by glands, providing lubrication for chewing and swallowing, and aiding digestion.

82.1.1.1.1. Stomach Acid: has a nifty way of digesting proteins and it's called stomach acid, though you might know it as gastric juice or simply acid.

83. Fevers: "is a body temperature that's higher than is considered normal. It's also called a high temperature, hyperthermia, or pyrexia, and it's usually a sign that your body is working to keep you healthy from an infection"

83.1. Antigens: "a toxin or other foreign substance which induces an immune response in the body, especially the production of antibodies"

83.1.1. Antibodies: "a blood protein produced in response to and counteracting a specific antigen. Antibodies combine chemically with substances which the body recognizes as alien, such as bacteria, viruses, and foreign substances in the blood"

83.1.1.1. Helper Cells: "a T cell that influences or controls the differentiation or activity of other cells of the immune system"

83.1.1.1.1. Plasma B Cells: "hite blood cells that originate in the bone marrow and secrete large quantities of proteins called antibodies in response to being presented specific substances called antigens".

83.2. Active Immunity:is defined as immunity to a pathogen that occurs following exposure to said pathogen

83.2.1. Passive Immunity:the short-term immunity which results from the introduction of antibodies from another person or animal

83.2.1.1. Antibiotics: are medicines that fight bacterial infections in people and animals. They work by killing the bacteria or by making it hard for the bacteria to grow and multiply

83.2.1.1.1. Antivirals:an antiviral drug or medicine