Leadership Theories

Mindmap of leadership theories in chronological organization.

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Leadership Theories by Mind Map: Leadership Theories

1. Classic Organization Theory - From beginning of commerce to 1930's

1.1. Aristotle

1.2. Machiavelli

1.3. Adam Smith

1.4. Daniel McCallum

1.5. Frederick Winslow Taylor

1.6. Luther Gulick

2. Neoclassic Organization Theory - 1945 - 1950's

2.1. Chester Bernard

2.2. Robert Merton

2.3. Herbert A Simon

2.4. Philip Selznick

3. Human Resource Theory - 1957 to the present

3.1. Mary Parker Follett

3.2. Fritz J. Roethlisberger

3.3. Abraham H. Maslow

3.4. Douglas Murray McGregor

4. Modern Structural Organizational Theory - Post WWII/1950's to present

4.1. Peter Blau and Richard Scott

4.2. Tom Burns and G.M. Stalker

4.3. Henry Mintzberg

4.4. Richard Burton and Borge Obel

4.5. Arthur Walker and Jay Lorsch

5. Organizational Economics Theory - 1960's to the present

5.1. John Locke

5.2. Michael Jensen & William Meckling

5.3. Oliver E. Williamson

5.4. Jay B. Barney & William G. Ouchi

5.5. Paul Rubin

6. Power and Politics Organizational Theory - 1970's to the present

6.1. Rosabeth Moss Kanto

6.2. Henry Mintzberg

6.3. Jeffrey Pfeffer

6.4. James March

6.5. John R. P. French and Bertram Raven

6.6. John French Jr. and Bertram Raven

7. Theories of Organizational Culture and Change - 1980's

7.1. Joan Acker

7.2. Mitchell F. Rice & Audrey L. Mathews

7.3. Archie Carroll & Ann Buchholtz

7.4. Paul C. Light

7.5. David Billis

8. Theories of Organizations and Environments - 1967 - present

8.1. Daniel Katz and Robert Kahn

8.2. James D. Thompson

8.3. John Meyer and Brian Rowan

8.4. Jeffrey Pfeffer and Gerald Salancik

8.5. Glenn R. Carroll and Michael T. Hannan

9. Major Contributors

10. Theory Group

11. Major Ideas

12. Strengths and Weaknesses

13. The function of an organization is to achieve production and economic goals, and there is one "best way" do do this. Focus on specialization and division of labor. Workers are replaceable cogs in the machine.

13.1. Strengths

13.1.1. Beginning of industrial revolution and modernization of civilization.

13.2. Weaknesses

13.2.1. Lead to dehumanization of the worker and rise of the capitalist class.

14. Started to look at the environments in which a business operated. Use of sociology in business.

14.1. Strengthes

14.1.1. Opened up the door to other schools of thought.

14.1.2. Added the human element to the study of organizations.

14.2. Weaknesses

14.2.1. Didn't go far enough

15. Organizations and people can work together for mutual benefits. Workers give organizations labor and ideas, organizations give workers a place to grow and create something larger than themselves.

15.1. Strengths

15.1.1. Adds the very important human element.

15.1.2. Looks at benefits for both employees and organization.

15.2. Weaknesses

15.2.1. Might oversimplify and "whitewash" relationship between employee and organization.

16. Many similarities to classic organizational theory. Focus on structure and hierarchy. Incorporates some modern ideas like external/human influences, but goal is to increase production/profits.

16.1. Strengths

16.1.1. Adds many modern ideas to classic organization theory, like outside influences and human element.

16.2. Weaknesses

16.2.1. Still focuses on formal authority and rigid power structure.

17. Added theories from the field of economics, such as Game Theory. Organizations reduce cost of transactions better than the market. Managers must delegate some agency to subordinates.

17.1. Strengths

17.1.1. Focus is primarily on making money, which is good for a business

17.2. Weaknesses

17.2.1. Focus is primarily on making money, which is bad for public education.

17.2.2. low on ethics.

18. Organizations are a complex conglomeration of smaller groups that compete for resources and power within the organization. These coalitions may have goals different from the stated goals of the organization, and their goals may change frequently.

18.1. Strengths

18.1.1. High explanatory power

18.2. Weaknesses

18.2.1. low application power

19. Many decisions in an organization are not made rationally, but are due to the culture of the organization. What people think is happening in an organization is more important that what is really happening. Symbols carry much power because the are easier to understand than complex theories.

19.1. Strengths

19.1.1. Gives good ideas for how to start change in an organization.

19.2. Weaknesses

19.2.1. Different people will have different ideas and interpretations of what are the cultural symbols in an organization and how to change/use them.

19.2.2. Can be very ambiguous.

20. The organization must interact with its environment, much like a living organism. It is a complex set of linked inputs, outputs and throughputs, each of which interacts with and influences the others. Many of these interactions are unknown and changing one may lead to unintended consequences.

20.1. Strengths

20.1.1. Incorporates many of the ideas from previous schools of thought

20.1.2. allows for complex analysis of all elements of an organization.

20.2. Weaknesses

20.2.1. Not very useful in small, closed systems

21. References

21.1. Northouse, P. (2019). Leadership : Theory and Practice (8th ed.). Los Angeles Sage.

21.2. Shafritz, J., Ott, S., & Jang, Y. S. (2016). Classics of organization theory. Boston, Ma: Cengage Learning.

22. Major Approaches to Leadership

23. Trait Approach - 1930's

23.1. Focus on innate personality of leader

23.2. “Great Man” Theory : Leaders are born, not made

23.3. Later, refined to say that specific people are leaders in specific areas, not all areas. leads to "Skills Approach."

24. Skills Approach – 1950’s

24.1. Focus on leadership as a skill which can be learned

25. Behavioral Approach -1960’s

25.1. Focus on leadership as a behavior which influences other people

26. Situational Approach – late 1960’s

26.1. Each situation is different and needs a different type of leader

27. Path-Goal Theory – 1970’s

27.1. Each group of followers is different and need a different leadership style to match their needs.

28. Leader-Member Exchange Theory – mid 1970’s

28.1. Focus on interaction between leaders and followers

29. Transformational Leadership – late 1980’s – early 1990’s

29.1. Leaders inspire followers to become better people

30. Authentic Leadership – early 1990’s

30.1. Comes from transformational leadership

30.2. Focus on if leadership is “real” and trustworthy

31. Servant Leadership – 1970’s

31.1. Focus is on (ethical) behavior of leader (skills approach and behavior approach)

31.2. Leader focuses on needs of followers.

31.3. Leader empowers followers

32. Adaptive Leadership – mid 1990’s

32.1. Leaders encourages followers to face difficulties and learn new ways of working

32.2. Is follower-centered

33. Followership - 1930’s/40’s

33.1. Started in 1930’s/40’s, has recently gained more interest

33.2. Good followers can make a leader great

33.3. Followers have ethical obligation to choose good leader

33.4. Followers accept leadership to accomplish a goal