geo revision (dynamics development)

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geo revision (dynamics development) by Mind Map: geo revision (dynamics development)

1. Millennium Development Goals

2. Development gap

2.1. the difference between the most and least developed countries

2.2. cause of development gap

2.2.1. physical factors

2.2.1.1. a factor that is cause by nature not man

2.2.1.2. landlock

2.2.1.2.1. a country that is surrounded by land no sea

2.2.1.3. relief of land

2.2.1.3.1. height of land

2.2.1.4. climate

2.2.1.4.1. the weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period.

2.2.1.5. natural hazards

2.2.1.5.1. extreme natural events

2.2.2. Human factors

2.2.2.1. trade

2.2.2.1.1. the action of buying and selling goods and services.

2.2.2.2. corruption

2.2.2.2.1. dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power, typically involving bribery

2.2.2.3. Global link

2.2.2.3.1. how other country interact with another country

2.2.2.4. colonization

2.2.2.4.1. when a country have a control of another

2.2.2.5. war

2.2.2.5.1. a state of armed conflict between different countries or different groups within a country.

3. dynamic development

3.1. The definition of development

3.1.1. the progress of a country in regards to human wellbeing and economic growth

3.2. Advanced countries[AC]

3.3. Emerging developing countries[EDC]

3.4. Low-income developing countries[LIDC]

3.5. development measurement

3.5.1. social

3.5.1.1. Birth rate

3.5.1.2. Doctors per1000

3.5.1.3. Literacy rate

3.5.1.4. infant morality rate

3.5.1.5. Death rate

3.5.1.6. life expectancy

3.5.2. economic

3.5.2.1. Gross domestic product [GDP]

3.5.2.2. GNI per capita

3.5.2.2.1. gross national income per person- the total money in the country divide the total population of the country

3.5.3. Both

3.5.3.1. human development index [HDI]

4. Poverty

4.1. poverty

4.1.1. the state of being extremely poor

4.2. absolute poverty

4.2.1. when a household income are so low that you are unable to afford the basic necessities

4.3. relative poverty

4.3.1. when you are poor in a comparison to the people around you

4.4. poverty cycle

4.4.1. a cycles of poverty when they affects the whole family's and it too complex to get out of.

5. case study of dynamics development

5.1. Ethiopia {LIDC Case study}

5.2. Ethiopia, country on the Horn of Africa. The country lies completely within the tropical latitudes and is relatively compact, with similar north-south and east-west dimensions. The capital is Addis Ababa (“New Flower”), located almost at the centre of the country. Ethiopia is the largest and most populated country in the Horn of Africa.

5.3. GNI per capita of $790

5.4. population is growing by 2.5%each year

5.5. HDI0.463

5.6. population -109 million

5.7. 85% of export&655of jobs are agricultural

5.8. historical civil wars

6. Rostow's model

6.1. Rostow believes that development is a progression

6.1.1. THE TRADITIONAL SOCIETY

6.1.1.1. The UK before the industrial resolution

6.1.1.2. Agriculture is the most dominant industry

6.1.1.3. Shifting cultivation

6.1.1.4. vulnerable to poor weather, diseases&pests

6.1.2. Pre-Conditions for take off

6.1.2.1. surplus of products

6.1.2.2. infrastructure has improved

6.1.2.3. agriculture still dominant but has become commercial

6.1.2.4. secondary industries begin to take off

6.1.2.5. encouragement of TNC to invest

6.1.2.6. they begin to experience globalization

6.1.3. Take off

6.1.3.1. industrialization occurs

6.1.3.2. increase in wealth

6.1.3.3. TNCs often dominates the economy

6.1.3.4. divide the rural and urban

6.1.3.5. multiplier effect occurs

6.1.3.5.1. multiplier effect is when an investment lead to more positive outcomes for a country

6.1.4. The drive to maturity

6.1.4.1. becoming more self-sufficient

6.1.4.2. diverse economy and government investment

6.1.4.3. rapid urbanization

6.1.4.4. very few people work in the primary industry. Quaternary jobs being to be created due to improved education

6.1.5. High mass consumption

6.1.5.1. seen as the ultimate point to reach predominantly tertiary sector jobs consumption of high values goods such as cars and electronic increase

7. will trade help with Ethiopia development

7.1. ethiopia major export commodities

7.1.1. vegetable 55%

7.1.2. mineral products 20%

7.1.3. animal products 7.4%

7.1.4. precious metals 7.4%

7.1.5. textiles 3.0%

7.1.6. Animals hides 2.1%

7.1.7. machines 1.8%

7.2. trade deficit

7.2.1. imports more than it exports

7.3. Ethiopia's top 5 imports

7.3.1. aircraft

7.3.2. gas/petroleum

7.3.3. medicine

7.3.4. cars&trucks

7.3.5. telephones

7.4. what is TNC

7.4.1. trans-national company

7.4.1.1. trans= between

7.4.1.2. national=countries

7.4.1.3. companies that operate all over the world.

7.4.1.4. supplier->factory->store->headquarters

7.4.2. case study TNC in Ethiopia

7.4.2.1. siemens

7.4.2.1.1. Germany

7.4.2.2. TNCs can create jobs. Siemens recently created 200 jobs in their new electricity project in 2017.

7.4.2.3. Wages are lower in Ethiopia than in Germany. Siemens can pay workers $100 a month less than they would in an EDC like China.

7.4.2.4. Working conditions are not well-regulated in Ethiopia. TNCs can make workers work longer hours for less pay

7.4.2.5. TNCs can trigger a multiplier effect. Creating as little as 200 jobs can increase tax revenue and benefit local services as people have more money to spend in shops and leisure activities. This is turn can have more positive effects.

7.4.2.6. TNCs don’t tend to relocate highest paid jobs to LIDC. Siemens keeps the majority of its key engineers / technicians in Germany

7.4.2.7. TNC investment can lead to valuable improvements to a country. Siemens’ new solar panel project will bring electricity to over 1500 people in Ethiopia.

8. timeline of Ethiopia history

8.1. Pre 1935: 1 of only 2 African countries to avoid colonization during the colonial era.

8.2. 1935-41: - Italy invaded Ethiopia just before WW2. - They invested in railways and power stations. - British troops helped gain back their independence.

8.3. 1974: A military coup took place – they evicted the government.

8.4. 1980's: Severe drought and famine occurred.

8.5. 1974-87: - 1.4 million people died in the civil war. - The monarchywas abolished.

8.6. 1991-2001: - New government voted in - Helped farmers to afford new machinery and fertilizers

8.7. 2001 – now: - Aid from the USA. - New plans from MDGs are training farmers - Stable government

9. Ethiopia climate

9.1. Western Highlands: - Wettest region - Steep land - Average temperatures 25-25C.

9.2. Central Area: - 2 rainy seasons, 1 dry - Unreliable rain - Temperatures between 25-40C.

9.3. Eastern Lowlands: - 2 rainy seasons, 2 dry - Unreliable rain - Temperatures constantly high – 30- 40C.

10. aids

10.1. Foreign Aid is help given from one country to another.

10.2. Emergency aid

10.2.1. Money, food, goods andservices given at times of direneed

10.3. Sustainable development

10.3.1. Development that meets the needs of the people todaywithout harming the ability offuture generations to meet their own needs

10.4. Short-term aid

10.4.1. Aid that provides support for ashort time, sometimes when there is an immediate need

10.5. Food aid

10.5.1. Edible commodities donated to needy populations

10.6. Non-governmental organization

10.6.1. An independent charitable organization that provides aid

10.7. Top-down development

10.7.1. Development projects that are imposed in people from ‘above

10.8. Multilateral aid

10.8.1. Aid that is given by a number of countries and organisations, like the United Nations and the World Health Organisation

10.9. Bilateral aid

10.9.1. Aid from one country to another

10.10. Long-term aid

10.10.1. Aid that provides support over a long period of time to make changes that last

10.11. Tied aid

10.11.1. Foreign aid that must be used in the donor country to buy goods and service from the country giving the aid

10.12. Voluntary aid

10.12.1. Money collected from the public (and sometimes governments) by nongovernmental organisations

10.13. Bottom-up development

10.13.1. Development projects that start and work from the ‘grass-roots’ level

11. the difference between top-down and bottom-up strategies

11.1. top-down

11.1.1. Government led ideas

11.1.2. Large-scale

11.1.3. Expensive

11.1.4. High-impact

11.2. top-down

11.2.1. case study->Omo River dam

11.2.1.1. Renewable energy

11.2.1.2. It has doubled Ethiopia’s previous capacity of energy

11.2.1.3. It can export some of the energy to Kenya & Djibouti.

11.2.1.4. Also helps with floods

11.2.1.5. impacts

11.2.1.5.1. Local populations were forced out of the surrounding areas.

11.2.1.5.2. More than 200,000 people rely on the Omo River for subsistence farming.

11.2.1.5.3. Forests downstream are at risk of ‘drying out’.

11.3. bottom-up

11.3.1. Small-scale

11.3.2. Low cost

11.3.3. Supported by charities

11.3.4. Led by locals

11.4. bottom- up

11.4.1. case study ->farm africa

11.4.1.1. UK based charity

11.4.1.2. Trains farmers on how to grow more food, take care of livestock & use resources sustainably

11.4.1.3. long term aids

12. Sustainable Development:

12.1. Meeting the needs of the present, while protecting the needs of the future – socially, economically & environmentally.