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LANGUAGE by Mind Map: LANGUAGE

1. NATIVE SPEAKERISM

1.1. Stereotype against foreign language teachers

1.2. Native speakers are seen as innately superior

2. COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING

2.1. Core assumptions

2.1.1. Interaction and meaningful communication

2.1.2. Relevant, purposeful and engaging content

2.1.3. Communication is a holistic process

2.1.4. Language learning is a gradual process

2.1.5. Effective use of strategies

2.1.6. Teacher as a facilitator

2.1.7. Classroom as a community

2.2. Classroom activities

2.2.1. Grammar is not taught in isolation

2.2.2. Create need for communication

2.2.3. Inductive and deductive learning

2.2.4. Content connects to students' lives

2.2.5. Personalized learning

2.2.6. Authentic texts

2.3. Paradigm shift

2.3.1. Learner autonomy

2.3.2. Social nature of learning

2.3.3. Curricular integration

2.3.4. Focus on meaning

2.3.5. Diversity

2.3.6. Thinking skills

2.3.7. Alternative assesment

2.3.8. Teachers as co-learners

3. LEARNING STRATEGIES

3.1. Choices taken by the learner that affect learning

3.2. Good language learner strategies

3.3. Main types of strategies

3.3.1. Metacognitive

3.3.2. Cognitive

3.3.3. Social

3.4. Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL)

3.5. Learning strategies and language teaching

4. INTEGRATING THE FOUR SKILLS

4.1. Reading, writing, speaking and listening often occur together

4.2. Receptive and productive skills

4.3. Integrated approach to language learning results in successful communicators

5. PLURILINGUALISM AND PLURICULTURALISM

5.1. Not the same as multilingualism and multiculturalism (social)

5.2. Personal feature, global and complex competence used in situations characterised by plurality

5.3. Four dimensions

5.3.1. Socio-affective

5.3.2. Linguistic and communicative registers

5.3.3. Learning strategies

5.3.4. Interaction management

5.4. Interculturality (situational)

5.4.1. Context of a communicative situation

5.4.2. Set of communicative strategies

6. TRANSLANGUAGING

6.1. Practices of bilingual people

6.2. Not the same as code-switching

6.3. One linguistic repertoire

7. L1 IN THE CLASSROOM

7.1. Strategic use generates benefits

7.1.1. Scaffold

7.1.2. Explain difficult concepts

7.1.3. Contrast

7.1.4. Class management

7.1.5. Positive transfer

7.2. The L1 defines our identity

8. SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

8.1. Fundamental Difference Hypothesis

8.2. Interlanguage

8.3. Fossilization

8.4. Characteristics

8.4.1. Prior knowledge

8.4.2. Cognitive maturity and megalinguistic awareness

8.4.3. Culture/Attitude

8.5. Conditions

8.5.1. Pression to speak

8.5.2. Amount of exposure

8.5.3. Setting

8.5.4. Modified input

8.6. Developmental sequences

8.7. Theories

8.7.1. Behaviourism

8.7.1.1. Habit formation

8.7.1.2. Practice

8.7.1.3. Key role of environment

8.7.1.4. Interference

8.7.1.4.1. Positive transfer

8.7.1.4.2. Negative transfer

8.7.1.5. Contrastive analysis

8.7.1.6. Error analysis

8.7.1.7. GTM and Audiolingualism

8.7.2. Innatism

8.7.2.1. Universal Grammar (UG)

8.7.2.2. Krashen's Monitor Model

8.7.2.2.1. Acquisition/Learning hypothesis

8.7.2.2.2. Monitor hypothesis

8.7.2.2.3. Natural order hypothesis

8.7.2.2.4. Comprehensible input hypothesis (i + 1)

8.7.2.2.5. Affective filter hypothesis

8.7.3. Developmental perspectives

8.7.3.1. No specific module in the brain

8.7.3.2. Information processing

8.7.3.2.1. Declarative and procedural knowledge

8.7.3.2.2. Restructuring and accommodating

8.7.3.3. Transfer-appropriate processing

8.7.3.4. Usage-based model

8.7.3.5. Competition model

8.7.3.6. Interaction hypothesis

8.7.3.6.1. Modified interaction

8.7.3.6.2. Negotiation for meaning

8.7.3.6.3. Comprehensible output

8.7.3.7. Noticing hypothesis

8.7.3.8. Input processing

8.7.3.9. Processability theory

8.7.3.10. Sociocultural perspective

8.7.3.10.1. Speaking and thinking are tightly interwoven

8.7.3.10.2. Focus on social interaction

8.7.3.10.3. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

8.7.3.10.4. Scaffolding

8.8. Classroom implications

8.8.1. Plenty of opportunities for interactive, meaningful, and task-based practice

8.8.2. Language in context

8.8.3. Scaffolding is necesssary

8.8.4. Teach items gradually

8.8.5. Teach lexically

8.8.6. Collaborative work, real-world and pedagogical tasks

9. FIRST LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

9.1. Developmental sequences

9.2. Order of acquisition of morphemes

9.3. Metalinguistic awareness

9.4. Theories

9.4.1. Behaviourism

9.4.1.1. Blank slates

9.4.1.2. Imitation

9.4.1.3. Positive reinforcement

9.4.1.4. Practice

9.4.1.5. Habit formation

9.4.1.6. Key role of environment

9.4.1.7. Problems

9.4.1.7.1. Little correction

9.4.1.7.2. Selective imitation

9.4.1.7.3. Variation in the amount of imitation

9.4.1.7.4. U-shaped development

9.4.1.8. Evidence why human minds are not blank slates

9.4.1.8.1. Common sense

9.4.1.8.2. Human universals

9.4.1.8.3. Genetics and neuroscience

9.4.2. Innatism

9.4.2.1. Endowment

9.4.2.2. Language Acquisition Device (LAD)

9.4.2.3. Universal Grammar (UG)

9.4.2.4. Poverty of the stimulus

9.4.2.5. Critical Period Hypothesis

9.4.3. Developmental perspectives

9.4.3.1. No specific module in the brain

9.4.3.2. Piaget

9.4.3.2.1. Manipulation and exploration of the external world

9.4.3.2.2. Stages of cognitive development

9.4.3.2.3. Cognition

9.4.3.3. Vygotsky

9.4.3.3.1. Focus on social interaction

9.4.3.3.2. Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)

9.4.3.3.3. Scaffolding

9.4.3.4. Structured input/Motherese

9.4.3.5. Usage-based model

10. CHARACTERISTICS

10.1. Arbitrariness

10.2. Productivity/Creativity

10.3. Displacement

11. LINGUISTIC KNOWLEDGE

11.1. Grammar

11.1.1. Prescriptive

11.1.2. Descriptive

11.1.3. Universal

11.1.4. Pedagogical

11.2. Components

11.2.1. Phonology

11.2.2. Morphology

11.2.3. Syntax

11.2.4. Semantics

11.2.5. Pragmatics

11.3. Competence and performance

12. WHAT IS IT?

12.1. Structured arrangement of sounds or their written representation into larger units

12.2. System of human communication

12.3. Not a cultural artifact

12.4. An instinct

13. ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE VS. ENGLISH AS A LINGUA FRANCA

13.1. Native speaker language is no longer seen as the only standard that all students should aspire to imitate

13.2. Emphasis on the global nature of English and the fact that most people who use it are non-native speakers