Topics Unit 2

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Topics Unit 2 by Mind Map: Topics Unit 2

1. Modal verbs

1.1. We use modals to show if we believe something is certain, possible or impossible

1.2. Must, might (not), could (not), can't + base form of the verb

1.3. When we give advice, we can use the next patterns:

1.4. Positive advice: should + base form of the verb if i were you + i'd (would) + base form of the verb ought + base form of the verb

1.5. Negative advice shouldn't (not) + base form of the verb if i were you + i wouldn't + base form of the verb

1.6. When we make requests, we can sound more polite by using the structure below: could you + base form of the verb would you mind + ing form of the verb

2. Present simple

2.1. The simple present (also called present simple or present indefinite) is a verb tense which is used to show repetition, habit or generalization.

2.2. The simple present is just the base form of the verb. Questions are made with do and negative forms are made with do not. * Statement: You speak English. * Question: Do you speak English? * Negative: You do not speak English.

3. Countable and uncountable

3.1. Nouns can be countable or uncountable. Countable nouns can be counted, e.g. an apple, two apples, three apples, etc. Uncountable nouns cannot be counted, e.g. air, rice, water, etc.

3.2. Countable nouns For positive sentences we can use a/an for singular nouns or some for plurals. There's a man at the door. I have some friends in New York. For negatives we can use a/an for singular nouns or any for plurals. I don't have a dog. There aren't any seats.

3.3. Uncountable nouns We use some with uncountable nouns in positive sentences and any with negatives. There's some milk in the fridge. There isn't any coffee.

3.4. Questions In questions we use a/an, any or how many with countable nouns. Is there an email address to write to? Are there any chairs? How many chairs are there? And we use any or how much with uncountable nouns. Is there any sugar? How much orange juice is there?