Promote small-scale artisanal fishing

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Promote small-scale artisanal fishing by Mind Map: Promote small-scale artisanal fishing

1. How massive campaigns to change dietary habits impact the bottom of our marine oceans?

2. Winners and Losers in Area-Based Management of a Small-Scale Fishery

2.1. Small scale fishing

2.1.1. Learning Hub

2.2. Link : https://www-proquest-com.ezp.em-lyon.com/docview/2308018067/fulltextPDF?source=fedsrch&accountid=41630

2.2.1. In an attempt to reverse declining trends of fisheries resources, in 2008, an Exclusive Zone of Artisanal Fishing closed to industrial fishing, was established in the Northern Chocó region.Fishery landings data from 2010 to 2013 are compared to those of a neighbouring region with no fisheries management.Catch per unit effort, mean weight landed, and number of landed individuals were calculated for mangrove and non-mangrove species by boat type and fishing gear.Results show that across fishing gears and time, mean catch per unit effort increased by 50% in the Exclusive Zone of Artisanal Fishing within 3 years.Fisheries here focused on offshore resources with 61% more fishing trips associated with motorised boats than in the unmanaged region, where fishing was predominantly in mangroves and close to the coast. However area-based management may have also driven the displacement of fishing effort by excluding industrial trawlers, which then concentrated their activity in neighbouring areas.

3. Plenty of Fish in the Sea? Not Always

3.1. Overfishing

3.1.1. National Geographic

3.2. Link : Overfishing -- National Geographic

3.2.1. The propagation of overfishing occurred due to the effort put by our governments on the availability and affordability of protein rich foods in our plates: creation of policies, subsidies... etc Quickly, profit-seeking companies went very aggressive on the ocean resources. Many species have collapsed nowadays. Commercial fleets are now going deeper and far away in the ocean. Scientists consider that the fish population could be restored with strict fisheries management, enforcement of the law on catches and the increase of aquaculture. However, illegal fishing is still very common, and the public is used to consume lots of fishes.

4. Underwater farm

4.1. Ocean acidification

4.1.1. TED TALK

4.2. Link : Underwater farms vs. climate change

4.2.1. 33% of wild fisheries are overfished and 60% are fished at their maximum capacity Aquaculture is a new sustainable solution to help prevent fish extinctions. But whether we talk about fish farmed offshore in the sea or man-made coastal ponds, nether of these methods are fully advantageous. Indeed, the farmed fish are placed into a stressful and overcrowded environment, producing lots of waste and potentially spreading diseases into the wild environment. (because their waste is dumped into the sea.) One way to solve these problems is to farm fish on lands in completely contained systems by filtering water to prevent pollution. But about 10% of the seafood caught globally is used to feed animals including carnivorous farmed fish. So inland fish farms are connected to overfishing Another solution would be to produce huge amounts of shellfish and seaweeds, cause they don’t need to be fed at all and they naturally improve water quality, reduce ocean acidification and absorb carbon dioxide. By supporting a sea plant and shellfish based diets we could play a vital role in helping our oceans.

5. Le monde face à la pêche clandestine

5.1. Pêche clandestine

5.1.1. Google

5.2. Link : Le monde face à la menace de la pêche clandestine

5.2.1. Illegal overfishing accounts for around 20-50% of total sea fishing. Most illegal fishermen have plundered their territorial waters and are therefore moving further and further from the coast. Others are legally registered vessels that do not meet authorized quotas. This illegal fishing is one of the main causes of the disappearance of fish stocks. These clandestine vessels should therefore be prosecuted by using sophisticated surveillance means and, above all, the subsidies that promote overfishing should be removed.

6. Le thon obèse est ciblé par une peche intensive

6.1. Le thon obèse est ciblé par une pêche intensive | Brut.

6.1.1. Bigeye tuna, a widely consumed , is targeted by intensive fishing. The main cause: the Fish Aggregating Devices (FAD) which are floating rafts attracting the tuna which are then caught in large nets where the young tuna are trapped, thus preventing the reproduction of the species. Only 20% of the original tuna stocks are available in the sea. Quotas and restrictions on FAD were put in place in 2010, but they were not effective. At this rate, the probability for the stock to rebuild by 2023 is almost nil. For NGOs, we must go further and reduce the currently authorized quota by 30,000 tonnes.

6.2. Pêche intensive

6.2.1. Brut

7. Le piracuse prospère de nouveau en amazonie

7.1. Link : Le pirarucu prospère de nouveau en Amazonie | Brut.

7.1.1. One of the largest fish species in the Amazon, the pirarucu, has been saved from extinction caused by overfishing. In the Brazilian reserve of Mairaua, 2,500 individuals were counted after a census in 1999, against 190,000 in 2018. A return to a human scale and sustainable fishing method has enabled this species to be saved from extinction. The quotas applied allowed the inhabitants to subsist while allowing the species to renew itself.

7.2. Pêche durable

7.2.1. Brut

8. Comment la surpêche fait des ravages dans les océans

8.1. Link : Comment la surpêche fait des ravages dans les océans

8.1.1. Fish is very popular on our plates and 75% of fish stocks are affected by overfishing. Ancestral fishing techniques are practically no longer practiced because of the lack of fishes, coastal planning and pollution. With our current nets, tons of fishes are thrown dead into the sea each year, which is a real waste. Since then, new nets and hooks that limit unnecessary catches have been designed.Some species used to migrate by millions, but their populations are now in decline.Popular fish such as bluefin tuna are caught at sea and fattened in offshore farms. Aquaculture and fish farming are also developing in some countries. These parks can cause diseases and parasites to fish stocks, however it helps alleviate the pressure on wild fish populations.

8.2. Diminution biodiveristé marine

8.2.1. National geographic

9. Sénégal : pilleurs des mers

9.1. Link : Sénégal : pilleurs des mers - ARTE Reportage - Regarder le documentaire complet | ARTE

9.1.1. In Saint Louis, one of the richest fishing area in the world, fish are becoming increasingly rare because of foreign and industrial boats which are very numerous and plunder the seas. Trawlers from Russia, Asia or Europe catch all kinds of fish with non-selective nets. A relentless war is taking place between these boats and the Senegalese artisanal fishermen who have to go fishing further and further away. Senegalese fishermen even have had to create marine protection areas to allow the reproduction of fish species. But this is not enough, because the country does not have the means to control illegal fishing, and foreign boats take the opportunity to break into. In other countries, such as Liberia, the government has partnered with NGOs such as the Sea Shepard to prevent this kind of illegal fishing. Thanks to the strengthening of laws and to trawler monitoring operations, fish are now gradually recovering in certain areas.

9.2. pêcheurs artisanaux

9.2.1. Arte

10. Surpêche : l’effet des subventions toxiques

10.1. Link : https://www.arte.tv/fr/videos/099981-002-A/surpeche-l-effet-des-subventions-toxiques-vox-pop/

10.1.1. Following the covid crisis and the drop in demand for fish, subsidies to support and modernize the fishing sector have increased by 500 million euros. This budget is usually used to make the fishing industry greener by supporting the sector in its ecological transition and by protecting resources. Subsidies for the construction and modernization of the naval fleet, reserved for small-scale fishermen so far, will be granted to all vessels up to 24m in length. Yet, a link has been made between the overexploitation of marine fauna and the increase in these kinds of subsidies. Furthermore, this risks leaving small fishermen more disadvantaged. If the European Union validates these amendments in 2021, it will end 20 years of fighting against overfishing.

10.2. Surpêche

10.2.1. Arte

11. Sustainable fishing

11.1. Link : sustainable fishing

11.1.1. Sustainable fishing entails of fishing species at different times of the year and letting them thrive and reproduce in their habitats to maintain an healthy and suitable fish stock in the sea. Different sustainable methods exist to maintain our fish level like : spearfishing, cast-net, fisheries management and other regulation which consists of setting quotas, enforcing boundaries, catching non-endangered fishes, and licensing fishers. Other rarer and more original methods consists of catching a Nile Perch, an enormous fish that can grow up to 2 meters and weights 200 kilograms rather than an endangered species for example. Aquaculture is also a method, however, it's controversial as the energy and resources required to maintain the farm outweighs on its benefits.

11.2. Sustainable fishing

11.2.1. National geographic

12. The problem with intensive fishing is that it is often illegal, but the main countries affected by the plundering of their seas do not have the means to monitor the trawlers in order to stop this disaster. Some countries are allied with NGOs, other countries, lacking fish, are building aquatic farms. Unfortunately none of these solutions are ideal or sustainable. So why should we look for a way to consume the same amount of fish without impacting our seabed when we could fix the problem at the source and change our eating habits to foods that require less resources?