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1.1. A verb or compound verb asserts something about the subject of the sentence and express actions, events, or states of being.


2.1. A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea

2.1.1. Possessive Nouns Anoun or pronoun changes its form to show that it owns or is closely related to something else.

2.1.2. Proper Nouns You always write aproper nounwith a capital letter, since the noun represents the name of a specific person, place, or thing.

2.1.3. Common Nouns referring to a person, place, or thing in a general sense

2.1.4. Concrete Nouns names anything (or anyone) that you can perceive through your physical senses: touch, sight, taste, hearing, or smell. A concrete noun is the opposite ofaabstract noun.

2.1.5. Abstract Nouns names anythingwhich youcan not perceive through your five physical senses


3.1. A preposition links nouns, pronouns and phrases to other words in a sentence. The word or phrase that the preposition introduces is called the object of the preposition

3.1.1. A prepositional phrase is made up of the preposition, its object and any associated adjectives or adverbs. The most common prepositions are "about," "above," "across," "after," "against," "along," "among," "around," "at," "before," "behind," "below," "beneath," "beside," "between," "beyond," "but," "by," "despite," "down," "during," "except," "for," "from," "in," "inside," "into," "like," "near," "of," "off," "on," "onto," "out," "outside," "over," "past," "since," "through," "throughout," "till," "to," "toward," "under," "underneath," "until," "up," "upon," "with," "within," and "without."


4.1. co-ordinating conjunction

4.1.1. ("and," "but," "or," "nor," "for," "so," or "yet") to join individual words, phrases, and independent clauses.

4.2. Correlative conjunctions

4.2.1. you use them to link equivalent sentence elements. The most common correlative conjunctions are "both...and," "either...or," "neither...nor,", "not only...but also," "," and "whether...or."

4.3. subordinating conjunction

4.3.1. introduces a dependent clause and indicates the nature of the relationship among the independent clause(s) and the dependent clause(s).


5.1. An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence.


6.1. A pronoun can replace a noun or another pronoun.

6.1.1. Personal Pronouns A personal pronoun refers to a specific person or thing and changes its form to indicate person, number, gender, and case.

6.1.2. Subjective Personal Pronouns A subjective personal pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as the subject of the sentence.

6.1.3. Possessive Personal Pronouns A possessive pronoun indicates that the pronoun is acting as a marker of possession and defines who owns a particular object or person. The possessive personal pronouns are "mine," "yours," "hers," "his," "its," "ours," and "theirs."

6.1.4. Demonstrative Pronouns A demonstrative pronoun points to and identifies a noun or a pronoun. "This" and "these" refer to things that are nearby either in space or in time, while "that" and "those" refer to things that are farther away in space or time.

6.1.5. Interrogative Pronouns An interrogative pronoun is used to ask questions. The interrogative pronouns are "who," "whom," "which," "what" and the compounds formed with the suffix "ever" ("whoever," "whomever," "whichever," and "whatever").

6.1.6. Relative Pronouns You can use a relative pronoun is used to link one phrase or clause to another phrase or clause. The relative pronouns are "who," "whom," "that," and "which." The compounds "whoever," "whomever," and "whichever" are also relative pronouns.

6.1.7. Indefinite Pronouns An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun referring to an identifiable but not specified person or thing. An indefinite pronoun conveys the idea of all, any, none, or some. The most common indefinite pronouns are "all," "another," "any," "anybody," "anyone," "anything," "each," "everybody," "everyone," "everything," "few," "many," "nobody," "none," "one," "several," "some," "somebody," and "someone." Note that some indefinite pronouns can also be used as indefinite adjectives.

6.1.8. Reflexive Pronouns You can use a reflexive pronoun to refer back to the subject of the clause or sentence. The reflexive pronouns are "myself," "yourself," "herself," "himself," "itself," "ourselves," "yourselves," and "themselves." Note each of these can also act as an intensive pronoun.

6.1.9. Intensive Pronouns An intensive pronoun is a pronoun used to emphasise its antecedent. Intensive pronouns are identical in form to reflexive pronouns.


7.1. An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies.

7.1.1. Possessive Adjectives A possessive adjective ("my," "your," "his," "her," "its," "our," "their") is similar or identical to a possessive pronoun; however, it is used as an adjective and modifies a noun or a noun phrase

7.1.2. Demonstrative Adjectives The demonstrative adjectives "this," "these," "that," "those," and "what" are identical to the demonstrative pronouns, but are used as adjectives to modify nouns or noun phrases

7.1.3. Interrogative Adjectives An interrogative adjective ("which" or "what") is like an interrogative pronoun, except that it modifies a noun or noun phrase rather than standing on its own

7.1.4. Indefinite Adjectives An indefinite adjective is similar to an indefinite pronoun, except that it modifies a noun, pronoun, or noun phrase


8.1. An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much". While some adverbs can be identified by their characteristic "ly" suffix, most of them must be identified by untangling the grammatical relationships within the sentence or clause as a whole. Unlike an adjective, an adverb can be found in various places within the sentence.

8.1.1. Conjunctive Adverbs You can use a conjunctive adverb to join two clauses together. Some of the most common conjunctive adverbs are "also," "consequently," "finally," "furthermore," "hence," "however," "incidentally," "indeed," "instead," "likewise," "meanwhile," "nevertheless," "next," "nonetheless," "otherwise," "still," "then," "therefore," and "thus." A conjunctive adverb is not strong enough to join two independent clauses without the aid of a semicolon.