South East Asian Diversity Lost

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South East Asian Diversity Lost by Mind Map: South East Asian Diversity Lost

1. Deforestation

1.1. Overview of regional change

1.1.1. 1% annual lost of forest

1.1.2. Protested forset areas only preform 1.5% better than non protected forest area

1.1.3. An increase in price for palm oil, rubber, & wood pulp increased the rate of deforestation due to demand.

1.2. Drivers of deforestation

1.2.1. Plantations Some happen in small scales. i.e fruit orchards Fruits exports significantly increased in Vietnam, Thailand, & Indonesia Relatively minor comparison to larger scale plantations. Some happen in a large scale capacity. Involvement of large corporation Increase in exportation rate for palm oil, and rubber requires the expansion of monocultural plantation to meet the demands thus resulting in loss of forest especially in areas that have poorer agricultural potential. Charcoal production is another driver of deforestation and degradation across the SE Asian. The production of charcoal cause degradation and destroy forests, release smoke and CO2 that contribute to global warming, and provide a fire risk especially in the peat-dominated soil

1.3. Impacts of deforestation & tree plantations

1.3.1. Increased erosion due to increased surface water run-off

1.3.2. Habitat loss & biodiversity loss Native species cannot survive in Low retention of the number of species compared, primary forest Usage of chemical treatment decreases biodiversity

1.3.3. Forest fragmentation Increasing forest fragmentation increases high ratio of edge habitat

1.4. Selective logging

1.4.1. Logging in some forms affects 20% of global tropical forests

1.4.2. Species abundance & diversity decreased overall in selective logged areas

1.4.3. Higher diversity was found in areas that were made up of intact forest patches and cleared areas than in those where selective logging occurred

1.4.4. Selective logging causes changes to species community composition, trophic organization, and food-web complexity Selective logging may require more land for the same profit margins The necessary road network is likely to facilitate further logging, in addition to hunting and other forms of habitat usage, which may have longer-term impact than logging Hunting & other activities can also occur in logging areas that can impact as well

1.4.5. Less research has been done in regards to maximizing urban biodiversity.

1.4.6. Loose standard for logging allow more tree removal in S.E Asia

1.5. Urbanization

1.5.1. Many urban areas in S.E Asia are within biodiversity hotspots, & have disproportionately impact on protected areas Cities in S.E Asia have less 'green spaces',

2. Mining

2.1. Larger areas for mining site due to the increase in exportation of limestone and cement

2.1.1. Extensive destruction of karst which is a hotspot for heavy biodiversity. Loss of habitat for endemic and highly specialized species Affect microclimatic conditions and thus karst habitat structure

2.1.2. Extension of mining areas overlap with protected areas. Ground-water pollution from seepage Heavy metal accumulation affect species reproductive viability and lifespan

2.2. Low rate of success of restoration following mining.

2.2.1. Many smaller companies don’t have biodiversity management plans Clearance of large area of forest

2.2.2. Due to the high level of endemism of some species, even the best management plans cant prevent the loss of their biodiversity.

2.3. Increase in exportation of coal

2.3.1. Extraction of coal contaminate soil and freshwater

3. Hunting and Trade

3.1. Overview of hunting and trade

3.1.1. to supply zoos, aquarium

3.1.2. enforcement of existing laws is considered weak

3.1.3. wild-caught species for pets

3.2. Regulation of hunting and trade

3.2.1. use of wildlife detection(conservation) dogs to detect wildlife in the field or in illegal exports

3.2.2. Enforcement and monitoring netwoks

3.2.3. scientists needs to work with society, managers and politicans to create sustainable societies to protect both local livelihoods and rights while guiding and supporting sustainable use.

3.2.4. use of real anti-poaching tags

3.3. Changing human behaviour

3.3.1. education on sustainable practice

3.3.2. celebrities, leaders and healers can act as conservation ambassadors

4. Pollution & Climate Change

4.1. Industrilization

4.1.1. Atmospheric pollution in many forms affect agricultural area Putting high risk onto many crop types & native vegetation

4.1.2. Deposition of pollutant chemicals such as perfluorooctane sulfonates High concentration might bring impact towards animal tissues & organs in long-term survival & reproduction

4.2. Rivers & Waterways

4.2.1. Increased levels of organic compounds (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous) Increased prevalence of algal blooms Causing high mortality to fish and other organisms Spontaneous abortions in aquatic mammals

4.3. Effects of greenhouse gas emissions

4.3.1. Causing changes to productivity, biomass, and community assemblage and structure

4.4. Biome shifts

4.4.1. Have significant effects on remaining regions of intact natural vegetation

4.5. Changes in seasonality and potentially drought

4.5.1. Water-limited and water-stressed

4.5.2. Forest ecosystems Alter leaf chemistry, and mortality rates in trees, and is therefore likely to alter community composition

5. Fire

5.1. Fire trend(1997-2011) shows SE Asia has the highest fire frequency and intensity (0.2)%

5.1.1. further increase in the future

5.2. Fire largely in forest or savannah (about 80%)

5.2.1. insular SE Asia over 60% fire occurs in forest

5.3. impact varies across the region

5.3.1. fire increasingly moving into natural system - Southern SE Asian peat swamp forests

5.4. peaks in fire linked to natural fluctuations in the ENSO cycle.

5.4.1. recent changes in land cover have exacerbated the spread, frequency and severity of fires.

5.5. human initiate the uncontrolled fires.

5.5.1. frequently "managed" fire events.

5.6. changes in landcover and management - significantly exacerbated fire activities

5.6.1. drainage of Southern SE Asia peat-swamp, conversion of peat-swamp forest to tree-plantations. lead to soil drying and increased incidence of fir activity.

5.7. Drainage canals for tree-plantation

5.7.1. linked to increase of fire area from 24% to 34%

5.8. remove areas of forest

5.8.1. not adapted for frequent fire. fire changes the natural system's structure ,diversity, soil and hydrology forest diversity can recover of the fire is infrequent but biomass is low (under 10% of former biomass)

5.9. Ecosystem function is impaired

5.9.1. reduce litter seed-bank, soil seed-bank, microorganisms diversity and soil bacteria compositions

5.9.2. low level of recruitment and growth, domination of non-woody plant

5.9.3. flooding probability and regime are altered by fire activities.

5.10. Changes in forest structure and function have effects on the animal communities.

5.10.1. decrease of species diversity

5.10.2. reduce chance at recolonization

5.11. Protected areas can play a role in protecting forests from burning.

6. Invasive Alien Species.

6.1. entered the region as ornamental /agricultural crops/weeds.

6.2. aquatic systems significant losses by

6.2.1. invasive plants clogging of waterways

6.2.2. invasive fishes out-competed native species

6.2.3. snails alter regime and functioning of aquatic systems

6.3. invasive insects

6.3.1. ant species known in both natural and developed systems but rarely been found far from human-modified system forests on margin of agricultural and urban areas are the only known natural systems affected

6.3.2. invasive termites known within SE Asia but relatively few associated declines in biodiversity are know.

6.4. more invasive plants than invasive animals

6.4.1. few plant species have ben found in forests habitats except in forest gaps and immediate vicinity of paths.

6.4.2. non-native plant species out-competing native species due to their ability to fix nitrogen

6.5. "Flower strips"

6.5.1. stabilize land and provide pollination services

6.5.2. have potential to facilitate the spread of invasive species

6.6. have the potential to become an increasing threat to biodiversity

6.6.1. they require monitoring and regulation to prevent any future issues

7. Reservoir Construction

7.1. Impacts on environment and living things

7.1.1. Methane gases produced by inundated trees which has been decomposed would result in production of greenhouses gases such as carbon dioxide.

7.1.2. Significant alteration towards the natural ecosystem which indirectly putting additional livestock pressure onto the remaining unflooded area due to reduction of fish-stocks.

7.1.3. Increased landslide along the river course.

7.1.4. changes in regional climate which in turn would change the regional species distribution anfd their survival probability

7.1.5. disrupt freshwater communities(2006,2011)

7.1.6. causes draughts due to upstream dams decreasing salinity and saltwater intrusion

7.2. Further impacts towards:

7.2.1. Aquatic life currently planned dam especially in Mekong river are projected to decrease fish freshwater biomass by 20% and if all planned dam are to be completed, migratory fish biomass may decrease up to 70%(2012,2016) causes significant volumes of water to become anoxic and this phenomenon alone is estimated to cause barotrauma and anoxia to over 1200 fish species in the Mekong region(2014). changes in water chemistry, salination, sedimentation, siltation, enhanced algal bloom probability and loss of breeding grounds change in aquatic community structures from lotic to lentic in some parts of the rivers.(2003 to 2013)

7.2.2. Terrestrial life construction of dam had affected countless of species of insects, plants, various vertebrates. negative social and environmental impact have been found repeatedly for the indigenous people in the rural poor. additional needs for protein through raising livestock which needs more lands in some cases, fracturing or segmentation of island due to excessive dam construction causes major endemic communities to not be able to adapt to their environment

8. Disease

8.1. not well-known threat to SE Asia biodiversity

8.2. Chytrid virus

8.2.1. confirmed in market populations and wild populations at low levels in countries across SE Asia.

8.2.2. has not been associated with large-scale declines

8.3. spread of chytrid virus and ranavirus

8.3.1. associated with markets and farmed animals and the water the are kept in stringent regulations may be necessary to avoid further emergent diseases.

8.4. B. salamandrivorans

8.4.1. not been associated to high death rates in Asia

8.4.2. thought to have originated in Asia

8.5. Ranavirus

8.5.1. asociated with higher rates of mortality in wild populations further research is needed to assess the level of the thread

8.5.2. caused high rates of death in some farmed amphibians pose a huge threat to native species in the wild without strict control Giant salamander is at threat

8.6. diseases of freshwater fishes are associated with variable mortality levels across SE Asia

8.6.1. plant taxa may be susceptible to diseases those transported to Asia from elsewhere

9. Wetland Drainage

9.1. Loss of these coastal and inter-tidal wetlands not only effects resident coastal and mangrove species

9.1.1. migratory waterbirds, recorded reductions, and wader populations of species utilizing the flyway have decreased.

9.1.2. Animals that are endemic to mangrove habitat have been declining in numbers in both diversity and abundance

9.1.3. Functions as incubators for migratory species as well as aqusatic species.

9.2. Conversion of wetland usage for agriculture, mineral extraction, & urbanization.

9.2.1. Mangrove loss in Asia is largely caused by six major drivers; conversion to sea-salt farms, to shrimp (or other aquaculture), to other types of agriculture or from hydrological disturbance or development

9.2.2. Further conversions are restricted by government regualtions

9.3. Mangroves functions as a pollution filter for marine systems, preventing heavy metals from entering truly marine systems.

9.3.1. Changes in wetlands not only threaten aquatic species with extinction due to habitat loss and degradation, but additionally change nutrient cycling, pH, and increases the probability of peat-dome collapse.

9.3.2. Some species are entirely dependent on intact wetland habitats, thus managing wetlands is essential for the long-term survival of many species (but especially amphibians, aquatic invertebrates, and fish).