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1.1. phosphoric acid

1.2. hydrochloric acid

1.3. sulfuric acid


2.1. carboxylic acids

2.1.1. mono acetic acid propionic acid lactic acid

2.1.2. di malic acid tartaric acid adipic acid fumaric

2.1.3. tri citric acid

2.2. phenolic acids

2.2.1. benzoic acids

2.3. fatty acids

2.3.1. sorbic acid

2.3.2. caprylic acid

2.3.3. butyric acid

2.4. lactones

2.4.1. ascorbic acid

2.4.2. gluconolactone

2.5. amino acids

3. Properties of acidulants

3.1. to alter or control the acidity or alkalinity of a food system.

3.2. contributes to flavour and assists in preservation by retarding microbial growth and enzymatic deterioration.

3.3. can act as chelating agents, buffers, gelling or coagulation agents and leavening acids.

3.3.1. Chelating is the agents that protect food products from many enzymatic reactions that promote deterioration during processing and storage.

3.4. Method to measure acidity

3.4.1. pH

3.4.2. titratable acidity.

3.5. 7 of the most commonly used acids and acidulants

3.5.1. Citric acid extracted from limes and lemons in the past adding a sharp taste to sweets and cold drinks, to generating an optimum condition for forming desserts, jellies, and jams

3.5.2. Acetic acid s pungent smell and is found in vinegar Commonly used in pickling industry flavorings and confectionary items

3.5.3. Fumaric acid very strong taste not highly soluble usually used in cheesecake mixes, dessert powders that contain gelatin, and powdered drinks The strong flavor and reasonable price of fumaric acid make it an excellent choice for making feeds for animals

3.5.4. Lactic acid used for producing boiled sweets and pickled foods used in the form of raw material for manufacturing emulsifiers for the baking industry

3.5.5. Phosphoric acid used in producing cola drinks This acid is known for its biting, harsh taste that perfectly complements the flavor of cola

3.5.6. Malic acid naturally found in tomatoes, apples, bananas, cherries, etc. similar to that of citric acid and are generally used for making beverages that have a low-calorie count it is little expensive as compared to citric acid. enhancing tart fruit flavors in ready-to-drink beverages to balance the taste of high-intenstity sweeteners in low calorie options. Malic and fumaric acids can help enhance, improve, and balance flavor in refreshing formulations. Act as flavor blender in carbonated beverages like sparkling water.

3.5.7. Tartaric acid majority of its applications are now replaced with citric acid most common application is its use as raw material to manufacture bread improver emulsifiers

4. Factors in selection of suitable acids for food

4.1. Form of the acid: solid or liquid

4.1.1. does the application limit the form of acidulant.

4.2. Solubility

4.2.1. it is important to understand how much of acid is required to achieve expected pH level (acidity), when playing with low soluble acids.

5. Application of acids in..

5.1. Food preservation & processing: maintenance of food quality.

5.1.1. APPLICATION to achieve the required pH and preservation by pH value. to buffer ( gives stability)- which can affect color, flavor to influence taste and flavour texture of foods As antimicrobial agent ( sodium benzoate) As a leavening agent For dough conditioning Flavouring

5.1.2. MAINTENANCE Lactic acid tends to inhibit the growth of bacteria. clarity in the finished product to keep colour

5.2. Formulating condiments, fruit preserves & savoury

5.2.1. CONDIMENTS & FRUIT PRESERVES Jellies and Jams Malic and fumaric acids help formulators to attain the flavor, color, and other organoleptic properties. Malic acid is also useful in gelling agents to reduce rates of sucrose inversion and to prevent acid hydrolysis. Fumaric acid is also useful to aid gel formation and can replace citric acid without significantly changing the acidity of an application. Dressing and Sauces Help to brightens and intensifies the savory character Malic acid is added to red pasta sauces and barbecue sauces to make them richer and more consistent in texture, flavor, and color.

5.2.2. SAVORY Soups stimulate taste receptors, so greater intensity of flavor over time, leaving a long, savory finish resist spoilage and extend shelf life. resists caking and clumping in dry mixes. Snacks A touch of malic or fumaric acid extends the release of the spices and seasonings. Effective for blending savory flavors. Malic acid makes for a more balanced, natural-tasting, flavor profile. Pickles Prolonging the release of vegetable flavors and pickling seasonings. Malic acid rapidly dissolves in brine and has better water solubility than citric and tartaric acids.

5.3. Formulating bakery & desserts

5.3.1. Bread Fumaric acid offers unique characteristics- becomes more soluble creating a timed-release effect which allow for greater precision and control over rising time and finished product internal structure. Improve machinability of doughs making them softer and easier to knead and allow absorption Calcium propionate reduction-improved product attributes, including increased volume, softer texture and extended shelf time.

5.3.2. Sweet baked goods Malic acid delayed action leavening acid and acidulant. Leavening properties of fumaric acid become active during production with minimal impact on taste. At ph 4.5, sourness of fumaric acid is reduced, making it ideal for lowering pH in baking application.

5.3.3. Pasteries Most pectin-based fruit fillings have pH around 3.2 At this acidity, malic acid provides greater buffering capacity than other acidulants. Stabilizing the pH of fruit fillings, the texture and flavour notes are optimized. Malic acid is to supress sucrose inversion and acid hydrolysis of gelling agent helping maintain taste and texture on the shelf.

5.4. Beverages and confection formulation

5.4.1. Citric acid is the first choice to be used as acidulant. The main reason is the specific, relatively mild to slightly sharp sourness and refreshing effect on most of fruit flavours.

5.4.2. Malic acid is used when strong flavour enhancement is expected and mostly in combination with citric acid.

5.4.3. Phosphoric acid is commonly used in “cola” type beverages to bring specific taste profile and strong effect on pH.

5.4.4. In alcoholic beverages, mostly in fruity coolers and low alcohol drinks malic acid is commonly used. Succinic acid is used due to the legislation only in instant beverages for home preparation.