Unit 4 CH 10&11

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Unit 4 CH 10&11 by Mind Map: Unit 4 CH 10&11

1. The ‘rebel’ of the time period was Rousseau(1712-1778). He argued that yes humans are good by nature, but we are poisoned and corrupted by the institutions of the very society we live in. “Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains”. He condemned the “Nobel savage”, that is the new Americans, and his writings including studies of the true Natives of America as well as elsewhere where colonization had occurred.


2.1. Inductive reasoning - experimentation, tabulation, and record keeping to help draw conclusions.

2.2. Deductive reasoning - dissection questioning and use of mathematical proof to get truths.

2.3. Social Contract - agreement made between citizens through the state

2.4. “Philosophes” - a group of French philosophers

2.5. Fete Galante - a festive diversion in an outdoor setting

2.6. symphony - independent composition made for full orchestra

2.7. Sonata Form - 3 part musical piece(exposition/development/recapitulation)

2.8. Theme/Variations - individual pieces inside of a symphony

2.9. Strings - violins, violas, cells, double basses

2.10. Woodwind - flutes, oboes, clarinets

2.11. Brass - trumpet, French horn

2.12. Percussion - kettle drums

2.13. Fortissimo - “very loud”

3. Artwork

3.1. Antoine Wattuea - Departure from the Island of Cythera

3.2. Fischer - Benedictine Abbey, Ottobeuren, Batavia

3.3. Chardin- The Kitchen Maid

3.4. Hogarth - “Marriage” series

3.5. Boucher - The Bath of Venus

3.6. Greuze - Village Betrothal

3.7. Wright - An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump

3.8. Fragonard - The Swing

3.9. Clodion - The Intoxication of Wine

3.10. Houdon- Voltaire seated

3.11. David - The Oath of Horatii

3.12. Jefferson - Monticello

3.13. Vigee-Lebrun - Marie Antionette


4.1. Bacon - November ORganum

4.2. Descartes - Discourse on the Method

4.3. Hobbes - Leviathan

4.4. Newton - Mathematician Principles

4.5. Locke - Of Civil Government

4.6. Defoe - Robinson Crusoe

4.7. Swift - Gulliver’s Travels

4.8. Pope - Essay on Man(1732-44)

4.9. Diderot - Encyclopedia(1757-72)

4.10. Voltaire - Candide

4.11. Jefferson - Declaration of Independence

4.12. Smith - Wealth of Nations

4.13. Wollstonecraft - A Vindication of Rights of Women


5.1. Music went through a groundbreaking and masterful time, but classical music dominated the west from 1760-1820.

5.2. Symmetry, balance, and formal restraint are the focal points that would be hammered home and then continuously improved upon.

5.3. Joseph Haydn(1732-1809), propelled classical music, and without him it may never have become what it did.

5.4. The symphony orchestra had also been born, which included brass, woodwinds, strings and percussions.

5.5. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart(1756-1791)

5.5.1. The musical genius of the era and perhaps all time. He wrote his first composition at age 6, and his first symphony at age 8.

5.5.2. His ability to hear something one time and be able to eloquently play it, no matter the instrument has still not been seen to its likes again.

5.5.3. Mozart didn’t invent new forms of music, rather he shattered the norms and enhanced every and any sound possible.

6. Neoclassicism

6.1. Yet another revival of Greco-Roman culture, only this time due to exploration of Classical ruins in the 18th century.

6.2. Most notably and at the forefront was the excavations of Herculaneum and Pompei, the two cities buried by Mt. Vesuvius. This highlighted the beginning of a new way of scientifically studying things.

6.3. Architecture and sculptures also went back to classical roots, especially in new America. You can see on many plantations the classical styles.

7. Rococo

7.1. The ‘decorative finale’ of the Baroque era, it was rich in ornamentation like the baroque style, yet much more “playful” in its use of colors and depictions.

7.2. Included dazzling arrays, often outside in garden and/or forestry settings.

7.3. Artists aimed for depictions of nature and love, whether biblical or not. Love and nurturing was the key component of most artwork.


8.1. At the forefront of the Enlightenment movement was John Locke(1632-1704. In 1690, his Essay Concerning Human Understanding supported that everything one knows is from our sensory experiences. His views spread to France through Montesquieu, and to America through Thomas Jefferson.

8.2. Another key figure, and is still revered for woman’s rights, was Mary Wollstonecraft(1759-1797). She was key in the implementation of defense of women and their rights, and argued for a “revolution of female manners”, and that the concept of what a woman should be was constructed by tyrannical and misogynistic men.

9. Modern Philosophy

9.1. Rene Descartes(1596-1650) was at the forefront of the beginning of modern philosophy. He used a method of abstract reasoning and mathematical proof. He concluded this was the best scientific method of investigation. Deductive reasoning was born, with its number one rule being, “NEVER accept anything as true that you do not clearly know to be true.”

10. The Scientific Revolution(1600-1750)

10.1. Based on constantly inquiring and wanting to test the “truths” of mankind, the scientific Revolution used 3 ideologies

10.1.1. 1. Arrive at scientific truths by means of observation and experimentation(empirical method) 2. Use of mathematical theory 3. Developing new instruments to test naturally occurring phenomenons.

10.2. One of the main turning points was the Geocentric(earth is center of universe) vs Heliocentric(Earth was not in the center). Johannes Kepler was the first to cement the heliocentric theory through his research and writings. Galileo helped further advance this work in Italy, which angered the church, and led to his capture and ultimately death.

11. Enlightenment=“illumination”, in this instance shedding new light on science and pushing the cusp and mankind’s knowledge of the earth and everything in it

11.1. Unlike the medieval time period, the “modern view of world was governed by science and the principles of human reason”.

12. Key Terms CH 10

12.1. Baroque: florid ornamentation, spatial grandeur, and theatrical flamboyance.

12.2. Piazza: broad space in front of basilica

12.3. Stucco: A light, pliable plaster

12.4. Foreshortening: perspective device

12.5. Camera obscura: optical device(17th century)

12.6. Etchings: a printing process

12.7. Burin: a steel wool

12.8. Salons: drawing rooms

12.9. Marquetry: Inlaid wood

12.10. Comedie-ballets: dramatic performances incorporating interludes of song and dance.

12.11. Polychoral

12.12. Cornets:

12.13. Chancel:

12.14. Concertato

12.15. Dynamics: LOUDNESS

12.16. Tonality: Arrangement around specific tone

12.17. Masque

12.18. Libretto: little book

12.19. OvertureL opera intro

12.20. Arias: elaborate solo

13. Key Music

13.1. Palestrina - Pope Marcellus Mass

13.2. Gabrieli - Motets

13.3. Monteverdi - Orfeo

13.4. 1st permanent performing orchestra - set up by Louis XIV in 1670

13.5. BACH - Brandenburg Concerto, Cantata Number Eighty, Passion According to St. Matthew, The Art of Fugue

13.6. Handel - Messiah

14. Key Art

14.1. Parmigianino - Madonna of the Long Neck

14.2. El Greco - The Agony in the Garden

14.3. Caravaggio - The Crucifixion of St. Peter

14.4. Vermeer - View of Delft

14.5. .van Osterwyck - Vanitas Still Life

14.6. New Topic

15. The Aristocratic Baroque

15.1. A “God on Earth” approach was taken by royal families of Europe during this time period. They felt as though they had unlimited and total power over all decisions pertaining to their rule.

15.2. The most notorious of all these rulers is King Louis XIV(1638-1715)of France. He extensively used his power in all aspects of his rule; politically, economically, and culturally through policies. He also placed the church under his control

15.3. He was a firm believer in arts and culture, and created numerous academies.

15.4. 1648-Academy of Painting and Sculpture, 1661-Academy of Dance, 1666-Academy of Sciences, 1669-Academy of Music, 1671-Academy of Architecture.

15.4.1. These were not necessarily just created for cultural purposes. Rather he was worried of fame;I entrust you the most precious thing on Earth - my fame”, he stated to some of his teachers.

15.5. New Topic

16. The Northern Baroque

16.1. Still largely Protestant, the north saw a different type of influence from Baroque.

16.2. The middle class, specifically of England, had grown more prominent and wealthy. They wanted art while at home, as their worship was not done in churches.

16.3. Eventually the middle class of England led to a clash of religion and royalty. The “Glorious Revolution of 1688” led to civil rights wins for the people of England. The had gained the freedom of worship, a constitutional government, with the 1688 Bill of Rights and the 1689 Toleration Act.

17. The Italian Baroque

17.1. Italy is where the concept of baroque art and imagery came to be, in the early 17th century.

17.2. It aimed to increase dramatics in biblical stories, allowing one to feel more a part of and experience the Bible.

17.3. The ability to capture an audience and what sprung The European Baroque can be accredited to Italy.

17.4. Baroque style in art and architecture in particular spread to Spain as well as Latin America.

17.5. Spain was also a heavy factor in the baroque culture.

18. The Enlightnement: Science and The New Learning(~1650-1800)

19. Baroque (1650-1750)

19.1. Characterized by dramatic movement, extravagant ornamentation, and theatrical display.

19.2. This is the “style that dominates arts of Western Europe, between roughly 1650 and 1750.”

20. The Catholic Reformation

20.1. The Catholic(“counter”)Reformation, was a result of the church trying to gain worshipers back from the Protestant movement.

20.2. They engaged Western Europe through the arts, showing different events and ideas in ways never before. They also became heavily involved in exploration of the “New World”. This in turn allowed the church to spread to parts of South America mainly.