Chromatography

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Chromatography by Mind Map: Chromatography

1. Thermodynamic Limitations

1.1. Entropy

1.2. Separation

2. Types

2.1. Gas Chromatography

2.1.1. Columns

2.1.1.1. Packed

2.1.1.2. Capillary

2.1.1.3. Inside Coating

2.1.1.3.1. Silicone

2.1.1.3.2. PEG

2.1.2. Carrier Gas

2.1.2.1. He and H2

2.1.2.2. N2

2.1.3. Sample Injection

2.1.3.1. Split

2.1.3.2. Splitless

2.1.3.3. On-Column

2.1.4. Liquid Stationary Phase

2.1.4.1. Temperature Programming

2.1.5. Detectors

2.1.5.1. Thermal Conductivity Detector

2.1.5.2. Flame Ionization Detector

2.1.6. GC-MS

2.2. Liquid Chromatography

2.2.1. HPLC

2.2.1.1. System

2.2.1.1.1. Solvent

2.2.1.2. Phase

2.2.1.2.1. Normal

2.2.1.2.2. Reversed

2.2.1.3. Packing Particle

2.2.2. Mass Spectroscopy Compatibility

2.2.3. HILIC

2.2.3.1. NP-LC

2.2.3.2. IC

2.2.3.3. RP-LC

2.2.3.4. Stationary Phase

2.2.3.4.1. Less polar, retention time increases

2.2.3.5. Good for vitamins

2.3. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

3. Plates

3.1. Plate theory

3.2. Distillation

4. Phases

4.1. Mobile

4.2. Stationary

5. Separation

5.1. By extraction

5.1.1. Funnel

5.1.2. Aqueous Layer

5.1.3. Organic Layer

5.2. Analytical

5.2.1. Column Efficiency

5.2.2. Gaussian

5.3. Resolution of Peaks

5.4. Rate Theory of Chromatography

5.4.1. Van Deemter Equation

5.4.1.1. Term A

5.4.1.1.1. Particles travel unequal distances

5.4.1.2. Term B

5.4.1.2.1. Longitudinal Diffusion

5.4.1.3. Term C

5.4.1.3.1. Equilibration Time

6. Mass Spectroscopy

6.1. GC-MS

6.1.1. Thermally stable compounds

6.1.2. Simple and fast

6.2. LC-MS

6.3. Instrumentation

6.3.1. Ionizer

6.3.1.1. Mass Analyzer

6.3.1.1.1. Detection

6.4. Ion Sources

6.4.1. Electron Ionization

6.4.1.1. Hard Sources

6.4.1.1.1. Removal/addition of electrons

6.4.1.1.2. Lots of fragmentation

6.4.1.1.3. Electron impact source

6.4.2. Chemical Ionization

6.4.2.1. Soft Sources

6.4.2.1.1. Little fragmentation

6.4.2.1.2. M-1 Peak

6.4.2.1.3. Chemical Ionization

6.4.3. Atmospheric Pressure Chemical ionization

6.4.4. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/ionization

6.4.4.1. Sample mixed with matrix

6.4.4.1.1. Laser flash ionizes matrix molecules

6.4.4.2. Sample Prep

6.4.4.2.1. MALDI plate

6.4.4.2.2. Sinapinic Acid

6.4.5. Desorption + Electrospray

6.4.5.1. No Volatilization

6.4.5.2. Use for high MW compounds and thermally unstable compounds

6.5. Mass Analyzers

6.5.1. Magnetic Sensor

6.5.2. Quadrupole ion trap

6.5.3. Time-of-flight

6.5.4. Obitrap

6.5.5. Resolution

6.5.6. Mass accuracy

6.6. Detector

6.6.1. Faraday Collector

6.6.2. Electron multiplier

6.7. Tandem Mass Spectrometry

6.7.1. Triple Quadrupole

6.7.2. Q TOF

6.7.3. LTQ-Orbi

6.7.4. Ion trap

6.7.5. FT-ICR