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Allophones by Mind Map: Allophones

1. Elision

2. Aspiration

3. Assimilation

3.1. Assimilation occurs when one sound is altered owing to the influence of a neighboring segment.

3.1.1. Manner of assimilation:

3.1.1.1. Regressive or anticipatory assimilation

3.1.1.1.1. A sound changes to conform to the next sound in the phrase.

3.1.1.2. Progressive assimilation

3.1.1.2.1. A sound changes because of the sound that has come just before it.

3.1.1.3. Coalescent assimilation

3.1.1.3.1. It occurs when there is a fusion. It causes a sound to change by merging two contiguous phonemes into another phoneme different from the two coalesced sounds.

3.1.2. Types of assimilation:

3.1.2.1. Assimilation of place

3.1.2.1.1. The change in a sound occurs because it moves to another place in the speaker's mouth to assimilate to a nearby sound.

3.1.2.2. Assimilation of manner

3.1.2.2.1. It refers to two neighboring sounds becoming similar in their manner of articulation. This happens in coalescence when two adjacent sounds are merged to form a new sound.

3.1.2.3. Assimilation of voice

3.1.2.3.1. It is when a sound becomes voiced or unvoiced to match a neighboring sound.

4. L Sound

5. Glottal Stop

5.1. occurs before syllabic /n/.

5.1.1. If there is a T-sound directly before the syllabic /n/ it may be produced as a glottal stop in American English.

6. From the Greek: ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound.“ = Other sound

7. Allophones are phoneme variations that do not cause meaning change and happen because of its position and the phonetic characteristics of neighboring sounds.

8. Kinds of Allophones

9. Characterized by strong explosion of breath or puff.

10. It happens to voiceless plosive consonants ( /p/ /t/ /k/ ) in the initial position.

11. For example, /p/ is unaspirated when it follows /s/ (e.g. spin /spɪn/ → [spɪn]) but aspirated in a word such as pin, where /pɪn/ → [pʰɪn]. The phoneme /p/, therefore, has at least two allophones: [p] and [pʰ].

12. Examples: /p/ apart /t/ tickt /k/ keep )

13. An elision is the omission of a sound for phonological reasons (Algeo, 1999)

14. The next day /ðə ‘neks(t) ‘deɪ/ The phoneme /t/ is elided

15. The last car /ðə ‘lɑ:s(t) kɑ:/ The phoneme /t/ is elided

16. Hold the dog! /’həʊl(d) ðə ‘dɒg/ The phoneme /d/ is elided

17. Send Frank a card /sen(d) ‘fræŋk ə ‘kɑ:d/ The phoneme /d/ is elided

18. The voiced L sound (IPA symbol: ɭ ) can be found in English words such as pull, like, circle, light, help, clean, English, language, and milk.

19. Light L sound

20. Dark L sound

21. The light L sound is usually found at the beginning of a word.

22. L sound comes BEFORE the vowel or diphthong in a syllable.

23. The dark L sound is often found in the middle or at the end of a word.

24. If the L sound comes AFTER the vowel or diphthong in a syllable, it will be a velar or dark L sound.