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1. Coronavirus vocabulary

1.1. the biology is the sience of life.

1.2. A virus is a sub-microscopic infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism.

1.3. for the prevention dont go to places whit a lot of people, be careful if you have a bat nearby, go to the doctor if symptoms appear.

1.4. for the transmission,protection and treatment: you should wear a face mask, try to not have phisycal contact with people. Close contact with a person with flu or cold can be dangerous.

2. From Cells to Organisms

2.1. Organ is a set of tissues.These tissues have the same function.

2.1.1. System its a set of organs working together to do a specific task. Tissue is a group of cells that do the same task.

2.2. All the organs of the human body are made up of TISSUES.

2.2.1. The cells is the smallest element of the human body. The muscle system is made up of muscles. The skeleton is made up of bones. They are a system.

3. The Digestive System

3.1. the parts of The Digestive System are mouth, salivary glands, oesophagus, stomach, liver, large intestine, small intestine, pancreas, gall bladder, anus an rectus.


3.2.1. Digestion: Is the way the body gets the substances it needs from the food we eat.

3.2.2. Respiration: Is the way we get oxygen.

3.2.3. Circulation: The substances that we get from the air and food reach all the diferent parts of the body.

3.2.4. Excretion: Is the way in wich we eliminate the waste products in the blood. The body eliminate these substances in the orine.

3.3. The oesophagus is a tube that goes down yhe neck and chest. It connects the mouth t the stomach.

3.3.1. The stomach is a organ shaped like a bag. Its in the upper part of the abdomen. the intestine is a long tube. Its about eight and half metres in length.

4. The Circulatory System

4.1. Consist of three indepndent systems that work together:

4.1.1. Heart: The human heart is an organ that pumps blood throughout to the body via the cyrculatory system suppling oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and removing carbon dioxide and other wastes.

4.1.2. Lungs: The lungs main role is to bring in air from the atmosphere and pass oxygen into the bloodstream.

4.1.3. Arteries: Are part of the circulatory system wich delivers oxygen and nutrients to every cell in the body.

4.1.4. Veins: They are responsible for returning deoxygenated blood back to the heart after arteries carry blood out.

4.1.5. Coronary: Is the circulation of blood in the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle.

5. The Nervous System

5.1. Consist of the brain spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. Together, these organs re responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts.

5.2. In the human nervous system,sensory nerves carry impulses from the sensory organs of the body back to the central nervous syste out to muscles of the body to cause them to move or act.

5.3. They called neurons a function between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across wich impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.

5.4. The eyelash and the eyelids protect the eyes.

6. The Motor System

6.1. Is a related to behaviour. It is responsible for all movements.

6.1.1. It supports and gives shapr to the body.

6.1.2. It protects internal organs.

6.1.3. It provides a base to wich the muscles can attach.

6.2. The cartilage is flexible, resistant and softer than bones.

6.3. Bones are very hard and resistant. They are made up of living tissue and minerals.

6.3.1. Bones: frontal,temporal,vertebrae,collar bone, shoulder, sternum,humerus,rilos,ulna,ralius,pelvis,coccyx,phalanxes,femur,kneecap,tibia,fibula,phalanxes.

6.4. The muscles are responsible for voluntary movements.

6.4.1. Muacles: frontal,temporal,trapezius,pectoralis major,rectus of the abdomen,sartorius,quadriceps,tibial anterior and calf muscle.

6.4.2. Muscles contract and relax to produce movement.

7. The Excretory System

7.1. The organs that make uo the excretory system are:

7.1.1. The kidneys: are two organs that filter the blood to separate waste substances.

7.1.2. Ureters: are two tubes that take the urine to the bladder.

7.1.3. Bladder: is the organ that accumulates urine umtil is eliminated.

7.1.4. Urethra: is a duct. The urine passes through the urethhra before is eliminated.

8. Human Helt


8.1.1. Is an eating disorder characterized by episodes of uncontrolled and excessive food intake.Generally,these episodes are accompanied by a subsquent provocation of vomiting of consumption of laxatives to expel food from the body.

8.1.2. SYMPTOMS: Recurrence eisodes of excessive and uncontrolled ingestion of food. Behaviors such as introduction of omiting, use of laxatives or diuretics to compensate for binge eating. Ingestion of drugs to reduce appetite. Obsession with food.

8.1.3. CONSEQUENCES: Alterations associated withthe induction of vomiting or the use of laxatives, wich affect digestive system.

9. The Inmune System

9.1. Bacteri a are microscopic unicellular organism,without nuclei or chlorophyll,that they can appear naked or with a capsule,isolated or in groups and that can have cilia or flagella.

9.2. The most important cells are the white blood cels.

9.3. Vaccines are those preparations, that are administered to people to generated active and lasting immunity against a disease by stimulating the production of defenses.

10. Blood Donation

10.1. You can donate blood in hospitals or in especially equipped coaches.

10.2. The donated blood is kept in sterile bags. It is stored in refrigerators.

10.2.1. Before storing it,the blood is analysed to make sure that it does not have any infections or harmfull substances.

10.3. Transfusions are necessary when a person loses a lot of blood.

11. Animals

11.1. The three most important groups of ivertebrates are:

11.1.1. Worms: There are many different types of worms.They all have very long, soft bodies.

11.1.2. Molluscs: Some molluscs, like snails an calms, have a shell that covers their soft body.

11.1.3. Insects: Have six legs and two antennae, most have wings.

12. Tardigrades

12.1. In 2007, a creature called tardigrade became the first animal to survive exposure to space.

12.2. Are invertebrates that join other selected microscopic organisms to be part of a project on extreme survival.

12.3. Their robust bodies and their march have all the characterist of a bear.

13. Insects

13.1. An insect has three distinct body regions: head,thorax, and abdomen.

13.2. All of them have a singke pair of antennae.

13.3. As aduls, most insects have simple eyes.

13.4. All insects have three pairs of jointed legs, and most have one or more pairs ofwings; insects are the only arthropods with wings.

14. The Impact of Plastic

14.1. The first completely synthetic plastic was Bakelite, created from phenol and formaldehyde by the Belgian chemist Hendrik Baekelnd in 1910.

14.2. Plastics not only pollute the coasts, but also affect all marine fauna.

14.2.1. Animals become entagled in them and mistakes the smallest fragments for food.

14.3. Plastics have a high nergy value that can be recovered. They can act as an excellent green fuel, as they have a calorific value similar to natural gas and superior to traditional fuels such as fuel oil and coal.

14.4. Microplastics are small plastics pieces less than five milimeters long wich can be harmful to our ocean and aquatic life.

15. Ecosystems y Plants

15.1. An ecosystem is made up of a specific area and living creatures that live there.

15.1.1. The BIOCENOSIS is the group of living elements in a ecosystem

15.1.2. The BIOTOPE is the group of non-living elements in a ecosystem.

15.2. An ecosystem encompasses biocenosis, that is, the set of living organisms or biotic elements in a given area.

15.3. All plants have three basic parts:

15.3.1. The ROOT anchors the plant to the ground.It allows the plant to get water and other substances that it needs from the soil.

15.3.2. The STEM gives the leaves support. It also carries water from the root to the leaves.

15.3.3. The LEAVES are the parts that are responsible for the plants nourishment.

15.3.4. The best-known plants also have FLOWERS and FRUIT.

15.4. The parts of a flower are:

15.4.1. The SEPALS are tiny green leaves. They are at the base of the flower. Sepals protect the floer before it opens.

15.4.2. The PETALS re the colored parts of the flower.

15.4.3. The STAMENTS and GYNOECIUM are in the center of a flower.

16. Marine Ecosystems

16.1. Are aquatic environments with high levels of dissolved salt, such as those found in or near the ocean.

16.2. Have distinct organisms and characteristics that result from the unique conbination of phisical factors that create them.

16.3. The organisms that inhabit various marine ecosystems are as diverse as the ecosystems themselves.

17. Enviromrntal Problems

17.1. Problems

17.1.1. 1-Deforestation: the disappearence of forest and rainforests.

17.1.2. 2-Pollution: the accumulation on the gound, in the air and in the water of harmful substances causes pollution.

17.1.3. 3-Desertification: in this transformation of some landscapes into desert areas. The soi is very dry and very poor.Very few living creatures can live in these areas.

17.1.4. 4-Extinction of living creatures: Excessive hunting,fies ,and other actions can cause the extinction or disappearance of living creatures.

17.2. Solutions

17.2.1. 1-Avoid cutting down wild trees for wood. Grow new trees for wood. Substitute wood for other materials.Save and recycle paper.

17.2.2. 2-Reduce pollution: For example, we can use automative fuels that dont pollute as much. We can also reduce the amount of rubbish we produce.

17.2.3. 3-Protect specific areas: That are very important because of their natural values. We can do this by creating protected natural areas, like nature reserves.

17.2.4. 4- Forbid hunting animals: that are in danger of extinction. We can stp selling the products we get from these animaks, like ivory.