Totipotency

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Totipotency by Mind Map: Totipotency

1. Plant regeneration

1.1. enabled by

1.1.1. Meristematic tissue

1.1.1.1. Definition

1.1.1.1.1. zones of actively dividing cells

1.1.1.2. Characteristics

1.1.1.2.1. cells are small in size, have large nuclei, small vacuoles, thin cell walls

1.1.1.3. Locations

1.1.1.3.1. at tips of roots & stems (apical meristems)

1.1.1.3.2. in buds & nodes of stems (axillary meristems)

1.1.1.3.3. in cambium between xylem & phloem in dicotyledonous plants

1.1.1.3.4. under epidermis of dicotyledonous plants

1.1.1.3.5. in pericycle of roots

1.1.1.4. Cells growing out of the meristematic zone will begin differentiating

1.2. Somatic embryogenesis

1.2.1. Direct embryogenesis

1.2.1.1. directly from explant to new identical plant

1.2.2. Indirect embryogenesis

1.2.2.1. produced from explant then callus to differentiated plant tissue

1.2.2.1.1. requires plant growth regulators

1.2.3. Definition

1.2.3.1. Developmental process by any somatic cells into a zygotic like structure that finally forms a plant.

1.3. Organogenesis

1.3.1. Definition

1.3.2. Regulated by

1.3.2.1. Somatic embryo is formed from derived somatic cells that are not naturally involved in the development of embryo

1.3.2.2. Plant growth hormone

1.3.2.2.1. Development of adventitious organs from undifferentiated cell (callus) in tissue culture

1.3.2.2.2. Auxin - Enhance the root growth

1.3.2.2.3. Cytokinin - Enhance the shoot growth

1.3.3. Types

1.3.3.1. Direct organogenesis

1.3.3.1.1. multiple bud initiation

1.3.3.1.2. axillary bud induction

1.3.3.2. Indirect organogenesis

1.3.3.2.1. shooting

1.3.3.2.2. rooting

1.4. Callogenesis

1.4.1. Definition

1.4.1.1. Formation of undifferentiated tissue (damaged tissue) from an explant

1.4.2. have the ability to form a whole plant

1.4.3. Phases

1.4.3.1. Damaged tissue from explant

1.4.3.2. Callus formation

1.4.3.3. Differentiation

1.4.3.3.1. Definition

1.4.3.4. Dedifferentiation

1.4.3.5. Re-differentiation

1.5. Can only occur if the cell is competent

2. Suggested by

2.1. Haberlandt (1902)

3. Can loss due

3.1. Genetic- DNA changes

3.2. Epigenetic - Changes in gene expression

4. Enables

4.1. Plant tissue culture

5. Definition

5.1. Ability of plant cells to regenerate into a whole plant

5.1.1. because

5.1.1.1. each cell possesses the whole genetic information in its nucleus