PERIODONTAL DISEASE

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PERIODONTAL DISEASE by Mind Map: PERIODONTAL DISEASE

1. RISK FACTORS

1.1. cigarette smoking

1.2. diabetes mellitus

1.3. low education attainment

1.4. genetic predispositions

2. DEFINITION

2.1. chronic inflammatory conditions of the gingiva, bone and ligament supporting the teeth

3. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY

3.1. dental plaque

3.2. microbial biofilm

3.3. immunopathogenesis

3.3.1. imbalance between host and microbial biofilm

3.4. role of T cells

3.4.1. imbalance can be disease-inducing

3.5. susceptibility

3.5.1. levels of inflammatory mediators

3.5.2. reduced activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes

3.5.3. drugs stimulating gingival over-growth

3.5.4. changes in the levels of circulating hormones

3.6. genetics

4. DIAGNOSIS

4.1. bleeding while brushing

4.2. changed texture/swelling of marginal gingiva

4.3. increased depth of periodontal pocket

4.4. destruction of tooth supporting structures

4.5. recesssion of marginal gingiva

4.6. increased tooth mobility and drifting

4.7. tooth loss

5. PREVENTION

5.1. self-performed oral hygiene on a daily basis

5.2. professional removal of biofilm on a bi-annual basis

5.3. professional prophylaxis on an annual basis

6. MANAGEMENT

6.1. Non-surgical therapy

6.1.1. scaling

6.1.2. root planing

6.2. Local delivery of drugs

6.2.1. directly to the periodontal pocket using a powder, gel, chip or fibre

6.3. Surgical therapy

6.4. Tissue engineering

6.5. Laser therapy