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1. Integumentary System

1.1. The skin surface is representing the integumentary system. Shingles appears as a blister-like rash on top of reddish skin. Reactivated viruses reach the nerve endings on the skin where viruses cause lesions. Outbreak of shingles is followed by skin discoloration and fluid-filled lesions along the path of the nerve. (vesicles usually heal spontaneously in 1-3 weeks). A lesion is a circumscribed zone of tissue injury. However, breaking the lesions open by scratching them may lead to a bacterial infection in the skin and leave scars. Also, it is common to feel burning sensations or itchiness in the affected area.

1.2. Long-term effects of shingles include overly sensitive skin or changes in skin pigmentation, leaving the area affected lighter or darker than the surrounding skin.

2. Nervous System

2.1. After primary infection, the dormant viruses are reactivated by a cluster of neurons known as dorsal root ganglion. Nerve fibers of the intercostal nerve branches to the skin surface is the most common route of viral migration in painful diseases such as shingles.

2.2. During Shingles infection, the nerve fibers where the virus has been dormant become inflamed. This leads to abnormal transmission of neural impulses resulting in pain. However, once the infection is resolved, the pain can continue. A common effect of shingles is PHN, Postherpetic neuralgia. This is intense pain along the course of the nerve along with itching, burning, and tingling for months after the affected area has healed.

3. Muscular System

3.1. Shingles can cause pain in muscles that are nearby the affected area. In rare cases, shingles can also cause temporary muscle weakness or paralysis in the side affected by the virus.

4. Cardiovascular System

4.1. Pain and stress due to shingles can cause high blood pressure and may lead to heart attack or stroke. Shingles was found to increase the risk of cardiovascular events such as heart attack or stroke by 41%.

5. Skeletal System

5.1. As a result of shingles, joint pain can occur in the affected area.