Acid and Base

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Acid and Base by Mind Map: Acid and Base

1. Indicators to differentiate acid and Base

1.1. Phenolphthalein

1.1.1. Alkaline = pink o Acidic = colourless

1.2. Methyl orange

1.2.1. o Alkaline = yellow

1.2.2. o Acidic = red

1.3. Litmus

1.3.1. Litmus paper

1.3.2. ▪ Blue litmus paper goes red in acidic & stays blue in alkaline

1.3.3. ▪ Red litmus paper goes blue in alkaline & stays red in acidic

1.3.4. Litmus solution ▪ Alkaline = blue ▪ Acidic = red

2. pH Scale

2.1. o pH 7 is neutral

2.2. o < pH 7 is acidic (the closer to 0, the stronger the acid)

2.2.1. HCl, Nitric acid and sulfuric acid are also strong acids.

2.2.2. Ethanoic acid weak acid

2.3. o > pH 7 is alkaline (the closer to 14, the stronger the alkali)

2.3.1. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH)

2.3.2. Ammonia. weak base

3. Acids produce H+ ions in aqueous solutions Alkalis produce OH- ions in aqueous solutions

3.1. metal oxides, metal hydroxides and ammonia are base

4. A neutralization reaction is one between an acid and a base. It is an exothermic reaction and form Salt + water

5. acids are proton (H+) donors bases are proton acceptors

6. acid + base → salt + water

7. acid + metal → salt + hydrogen

7.1. ● 2HCl + 2Na -> 2NaCl + H2

7.2. experiment to prepare a pure, dry sample of a soluble salt, starting from an insoluble reactant

7.2.1. add excess insoluble base to the acid ● filter to remove unreacted base ● heat the solution so that water evaporates and crystals of the salt remain

7.2.1.1. prepare a sample of pure, dry hydrated copper (II) sulfate crystals starting from copper (II) oxide

7.3. describe an experiment to prepare a pure, dry sample of a soluble salt, starting from an acid and alkali

7.3.1. use a titration to find the exact volume of the alkali that reacts with the acid ● mix the exact volumes of the acid and base ● warm solution so that water evaporates and crystals of the salt remain

7.4. describe an experiment to prepare a pure, dry sample of an insoluble salt, starting from two soluble reactants

7.4.1. mix solutions of 2 soluble reactants ● filter mixture (insoluble salt will remain on filter paper) ● wash salt with distilled water ● leave salt to dry

7.4.1.1. prepare a sample of pure, dry lead (II) sulfate

8. acid + metal carbonate → salt + water + carbon dioxide

9. acid + base → salt + water

9.1. H2SO4 + MgO -> MgSO4 + H2O HNO3 + NaOH -> NaNO3 + H2O

10. acid + metal → salt + hydrogen

11. acid + metal carbonate → salt + water + carbon dioxide

11.1. ● H2SO4 + Na2CO3 -> Na2SO4 + H2O + CO2

12. to form the formula of the salt formed: ● take the metal ion in the base/metal/carbonate e.g. Na+ ● take the ion part of the acid which isn’t hydrogen for HCl= Cl- for HNO3= NO3 - for H2SO4= SO4 2- ● balance the charges