Colon cancer

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Colon cancer by Mind Map: Colon cancer

1. Pathophysiology

1.1. During cell division a healthy cell can turn cancerous due to genetic changes in a process called transformation, leading to proliferation to occur, and formation of a neoplasia

1.1.1. The malignant cell then in dysplasia loses its organizational characteristic of a healthy cell and continues to divide into a neoplasia

1.1.1.1. neoplasia leads to the release of chemicals that allows the blood vessels surrounding the colon of the mesentery to grow a blood supply to the neoplasia through angiogenesis.

1.1.1.1.1. The tumor can break off and travel to other areas of the body and cause malignancy in a new body area.

1.1.2. neoplasia in the colon can grow to be

1.1.2.1. polyp

1.1.2.2. ulcerative

1.1.2.3. stenosing

1.1.2.4. infiltrative

1.1.3. transformation of a healthy cell to a cancerous cell is caused by

1.1.3.1. genetic factors

1.1.3.2. environmental

1.1.3.3. infection/ prolonged inflammation

2. Causative factors

2.1. Family history

2.2. History of polyps

2.3. History of cancer

2.4. Inflammatory diseases of the bowels

3. Risk Factors

3.1. Lack of physical activity

3.2. Smoking

3.3. Diet

3.3.1. Low fiber diet

3.3.2. High in red & processed meat

3.4. Radiation exposure

3.5. Alcohol use

3.6. obesity

3.7. Inflammatory bowel diseases

3.7.1. Crohn's disease

3.7.2. Ulcerative colitis

4. Diagnostic tests

4.1. Occult blood screening

4.1.1. checking for blood in the stool

4.2. Endoscopy

4.2.1. This allows for a visual and removal & biopsy of polyps

4.3. CT

4.3.1. Imaging

4.4. MRI

4.4.1. Imaging

4.5. Colon capsule endoscopy

4.5.1. This allows a camera in pill form to be swallowed and allows a visual of the GI tract for providers to see any abnormalities

4.6. blood tests

5. Common findings

5.1. abdominal pain

5.2. rectal bleeding

5.3. weight loss

5.4. Changes in bowel habits

5.5. Anemia

5.6. loss of appetite

5.7. diarrhea or constipation

6. Treatments

6.1. Surgery

6.1.1. Resection of affected area

6.1.2. Removal of malignant tumor

6.2. Radiation

6.2.1. use of high doses of radiation to shrink or kill cancer cells

6.3. Chemotherapy

6.3.1. uses strong medications to inhibit and rid the body of fast growing cells

7. References

7.1. Axelrad, J., Lichtiger, S., & Yajnik, V. (2016). Inflammatory bowel disease and cancer: The role of inflammation, immunosuppression, and cancer treatment. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 28(22), 4794–4801. Inflammatory bowel disease and cancer: The role of inflammation, immunosuppression, and cancer treatment

7.2. Grady, W., & Markowitz, S. (2015). The Molecular Pathogenesis of Colorectal Cancer and Its Potential Application to Colorectal Cancer Screening. Digestive Diseases and Sciences, 60, 762–772. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10620-014-3444-4

7.3. Kollings, F. (2016). Diagnostics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer. Visceral Medicine, 32(3), 158–164. Diagnostics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer

7.4. McCance, K. (2018). Cancer epidemiology. In S. Huether (Ed.), Pathophysiology: The biological basics for disease in adults and children (8th ed., pp. 379–416). Elsevier.

7.5. Arvelo, F., Sojo, F., & Cotte, C. (2015). Biology of colorectal cancer. Ecancer Medical Science, 9(520). Biology of colorectal cancer - ecancer