History of Psychology

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History of Psychology by Mind Map: History of Psychology

1. Ancient Rome

1.1. Galen (2nd century AD)

1.1.1. created the theory of personalities

1.1.2. believed that 4 fluids influence moods, emotions and behaviours

1.1.3. blood, yellow bile, black bile, phlegm

2. 1900 to 1950

2.1. Edward Titchener (1901)

2.1.1. published "The Manual of Experimental Psychology"

2.1.2. introduce structuralism

2.1.3. attempt to determine the basic elements of consciousness

2.1.4. fade away after his death in 1927

2.2. Mary Calkins (1904)

2.2.1. first woman to become president of APA

2.2.2. despite denied her Ph. D. in Psychology by Harvard

2.3. Alfred Binet (1905)

2.3.1. published the first Intelligent Quotient (IQ) test

2.4. Morton Prince (1906)

2.4.1. published "The Journal of Abnormal Psychology"

2.4.2. developed Abnormal Psychology

2.5. Ivan Pavlov (1906)

2.5.1. published his findings on Classical Conditioning

2.5.2. 2 stimuli are linked together to form a new learned response

2.6. Edward Thorndike (1911)

2.6.1. published "Animal Intelligence"

2.6.2. developed the theory of Operant Conditioning

2.6.3. behaviour is learned through reward and punishment

2.7. Max Wetheimer (1912)

2.7.1. published "Experimental Studies of the Perception of Movement"

2.7.2. founded Gestalt Psychology

2.8. John B. Watson (1913)

2.8.1. published "Psychology as the Behaviorist Views"

2.8.2. established the concept of behaviourism

2.8.3. behaviours are learned through interaction with the environment via conditioning

2.9. Jean Piaget (1932)

2.9.1. published "The Moral Judgement of the Child"

2.9.2. leading theorist in cognitive development

2.10. Carl Rogers (1942)

2.10.1. published "Counselling and Psychotherapy"

2.10.2. developed theory of person-centered therapy

2.10.3. introduced a non-judgmental and respectable approach to therapy for effective treatment of mental health issues

3. 1951 to 2000

3.1. Abraham Maslow (1952)

3.1.1. published "Motivation and Personlaity"

3.1.2. described the theory of hierarchy of needs

3.1.3. one of the founders of humanistic psychology

3.2. Wilder G. Penfield (1954)

3.2.1. uncovered the relationship between chemical activity in the brain and psychological phenomena

3.2.2. developed the field of Biopsychology

3.3. George Miller (1956)

3.3.1. published "The Magical Number of Seven, Plus or Minus Two

3.3.2. described that human remember 5 to 9 parts of information

3.3.3. became an influnetial figure in Cognitive Psychology

3.4. Noam Chomsky (1957)

3.4.1. published "Syntactic Structures"

3.4.2. made a major advancement in liguistics

3.4.3. developed the field of Psycholinguistics

3.5. Leon Festinger (1957)

3.5.1. proposed the theory of Cognitive Dissonance

3.5.2. became an influential figure in Social Psychology

3.6. Albert Bandura (1961)

3.6.1. conducted the famous Bobo Doll Experiment

3.6.2. described child behaviour as a construct of observation, imitation and modelling

3.7. Stanley Milgram (1974)

3.7.1. published "Obedience to Authority"

3.7.2. described his findings from multiple obedience experiments

3.8. Richard Dawkins (1976)

3.8.1. published "Selfish Genes"

3.8.2. popularise the idea of Evolutionary Psychology

3.9. Howard Gardner (1983)

3.9.1. introduced the theory of multiple intelligence

3.9.2. argued that intelligence is used to improve lives not to measure and quantify human beings

4. 21st century

4.1. Steven Pinker (2002)

4.1.1. published "The Blank Slate"

4.1.2. argued agaisnt the concept of tabula rasa

4.2. Simon LeVay (2010)

4.2.1. published "Gay, Straight, and the Reason Why"

4.2.2. described that sexual orientation emerges during

5. 19th Century

5.1. Franz Joseph Gall (1808)

5.1.1. known for his discovery of phrenology

5.1.2. observe the skull to determine one's phychological attributes

5.2. Wilhelm Wundt (1879)

5.2.1. established the first psychology lab in Leipzig, Germany

5.3. G. Stanley Hall

5.3.1. 1883

5.3.1.1. opened the first psychology lab in America at John Hopkins University

5.3.2. 1892

5.3.2.1. founded American Psychologist Association (APA)

5.3.2.2. became the first president

5.4. James McKeen Cattell (1888)

5.4.1. first psychology professor at University of Pennsylvannia

5.4.2. published "Mental Tests and Measurements" which describes various psychological assessment

5.5. Hermann Ebbinghaus (1885)

5.5.1. introduced nonsense syllabus to study memory process

5.5.2. published his seminal "On Memory" which describe the memory experiment he conducted himself

5.6. William James (1890)

5.6.1. published "Principles of Psychology", one of the first psychology textbook

5.6.2. developed a theory called functionalism which describe the function of the mind

5.7. Lighter Witmer (1896)

5.7.1. opened the first psychological clinic at University of Pennsylvannia

5.7.2. developed clinical psychology

5.8. Edward Thorndike (1898)

5.8.1. developed the Law of Effect

5.8.2. describe responses that followed by satisfaction is more likely to reoccur

5.9. Sigmund Freud (1900)

5.9.1. published "The Interpretation of Dreams"

5.9.2. developed psychoanalysis

5.9.3. people are motivated by powerful, unconscious drive and conflicts

6. Ancient World

6.1. Plato (387 BC)

6.1.1. used the idea of psyche, the term used to describe the mind and soul

6.1.2. suggested that the brain is the mechanism of mental processes

6.2. Aristotle (335 BC)

6.2.1. suggested that the heart is the mechanism of mental processes

6.2.2. credited to be the first thinker to develop proto-psychology

6.2.3. wrote the first known text in history about psychology, Para Psyche, 'About The Mind'

6.3. Hippocrates (400 BC)

6.3.1. believed that personalities and behaviours assoiated with 4 "humours"

6.3.2. choleric, melancholic, sanguine, phlegmatic

7. Early modern period

7.1. 16th Century

7.1.1. Johann Weyer (1515)

7.1.1.1. considered as one of the fathers of psychiatry

7.1.1.2. first medical praticioner to specialise in mental illnesses

7.1.1.3. claimed that the mind, like the body, is also vulnerable to illnesses

7.2. 17th century

7.2.1. Rene Descartes (1596)

7.2.1.1. known for the concept of dualism

7.2.1.2. existense of mind and body as 2 separate things and the mind-body interaction

7.3. 18th century

7.3.1. Benjamin Rush (1745)

7.3.1.1. widely considered as the father of American psychiatry

7.3.1.2. practised on mentally-ill patients

7.3.1.3. developed innovative treatments (tranquiliser chair and gyrator)