Human Circulatory System

A mindmap of the human circulatory system.

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Human Circulatory System by Mind Map: Human Circulatory System

1. Blood

1.1. Components

1.1.1. RBC's, WBC's, Platelets, Plasma

1.2. Plasma

1.2.1. It is a liquid that comprises 55% of the blood. 91% of plasma is water and the remaining 9% are minerals and hormones.

1.3. Blood Corpuscles

1.3.1. RBC's

1.3.1.1. They are the main constituent of blood. They contain the pigment haemoglobin which creates the red color look of blood. The haemoglobin combines with oxygen and is transported to all parts of the body. The RBC's are formed from bone marrow which is present in long bones such as femur. RBC's live for 120 days and lose their nuclei after maturity. These cells have a flat, circular shape.

1.3.2. WBC's

1.3.2.1. These cells are less in number compared to RBC's. These cells have nuclei and are the defense system of the body. When a foreign body like a virus enters the body the WBC's enclose the virus into themselves and kills the virus. Some WBC's also produce antibodies. These antibodies will also fight against foreign bodies. These cells have an amoebic shape. They are formed by the lymph and bone marrow

1.3.3. Platelets

1.3.3.1. These cells are responsible for the clotting of blood. They live for an average of 5-10 days. They are formed by the bone marrow. These cells flow along with the rest of the blood until there is a breach.

1.4. Clotting of Blood

1.4.1. Blood clots when there is a breah or cut in the body. When there is cut the platelets releases an enzyme called Thromboplastin which forms another enzyme called thrombin. This thrombin helps convert Fibrinogen into fibrin. Fibrin is a sticky thread like structure which clots the blood by forming a mesh which does not allow blood to pass through it.

1.5. Importance

1.5.1. Blood is important as it has a variety of functions such as. Sending oxygen and minerals all around the body Maintaining the body temperature at 37 degrees celcius. It carries the carbon-dioxide produced by the body to the lungs to replace with oxygen It carries waste products to the liver and kidneys It transports hormones in the body to the target cells They help in defending the body against foreign invaders

2. Blood Groups

2.1. Classification

2.1.1. ABO is the classification. States that there are 2 antigens and 1 antigen-less blood possibilities

2.2. Antigens

2.2.1. Antigens are protiens that are found on the surface of blood

2.2.1.1. A and B antigens

2.3. Blood Groups

2.3.1. There are 4 blood groups. A, B, AB and O

2.3.1.1. A blood group means that the A antigen is found in your blood

2.3.1.2. B blood group means that the B antigen is found in your blood

2.3.1.3. AB blood group means that both A and B antigens are found in your blood

2.3.1.4. O blood group means that no antigens are found in your blood

2.4. Explanation

2.4.1. Antigens are how out body recognizes foreign particles and knows if to attack them or not. If they are foreign the body will start to produce antibodies to fight them.

2.5. Significance

2.5.1. The blood types helps in blood transfusion. Certain blood types can only accept certain blood types. If a person who needs a transfusion gets the wrong blood type transfused it could be fatal for the patient as the transfused blood starts to clump up in the circulatory system and the body starts to attack the blood because of unrecognized antigen.

2.5.2. The blood type AB is a universal recipient as it can get blood transfusions from any blood type. The blood type O is a universal donor as it can donate blood to any blood type.

3. Rh Factor

3.1. This antigen was originally discovered in Rhesus monkeys. There are 2 types of Rh blood types. Rh- (no Rh factor) and Rh+(has Rh factor)

3.2. These antigens play a major role in blood transfusion as an Rh- person can donate to an Rh+ person but not vice versa. When an Rh+ person donates to an Rh- person the Rh- person forms antibodies against Rh+ blood. These antibodies die in a short while. But if a second transfusion happens and the blood has Rh+ antigen in it. The body will fight back and this causes many problems.

4. Blood Vessels

4.1. Arteries:

4.1.1. Arteries are large, rubbery, muscular blood vessels which carry oxygenated blood away from the heart and to the rest of the body. The only exception to this is the pulmonary artery which carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs.

4.2. Veins:

4.2.1. Veins are smaller blood vessels when compared to arteries and they transport deoxygenated blood to the lungs. The exception to this is the pulmonary vein which transports oxygenated blood to the body.

4.3. Cappilaries:

4.3.1. These blood vessels are only a cell thick and allow for the diffusion of gases, nutrients and waste.

4.4. Differences between Arteries and Veins

4.4.1. Arteries: Thick muscular walls. Transport blood away from the heart. Blood flows in high pressure. No valves to stop back-flow of blood. Carry oxygenated blood.

4.4.1.1. Pulmonary Artery carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs

4.4.2. Veins: Thin walls. Transport blood to the lungs. Carries deoxygenated blood. Has valves to stop back-flow of blood. Blood flows in low pressure.

4.4.2.1. Pulmonary Vein carries oxygenated blood to the heart