Food Acidulants

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Food Acidulants by Mind Map: Food Acidulants

1. Definition

1.1. Used as preservatives

1.2. Act as a food additives that give a sharp taste to foods

1.3. Known as a acidity regulator

1.4. Control food acidity, alkalinity or neutrality

2. Example of acid used in food

2.1. Citric acid (E330) Solid, taste citrus strong, pH 2.3 (average 1% solution), High solubility, Natural, Flavor enhancer, pH control, Microbial control

2.1.1. Tartaric acid (E334) Solid, taste sour with tartaric notes, pH 2.1 (average of 1% solution), Low solubility, Natural, Leavening agent, Dough conditioner, Flavor enhancer, pH control Acetic acid (E260) Liquid, taste vinegar, pH 2.7 (average of 1% solution), High solubility, Natural, Flavor enhancer, pH control, Microbial control Lactic acid (E270) Liquid, Mild taste sour, pH 2.4 (average of 1% solution), High solubility, Natural, Flavor enhancer, pH control, Microbial control

3. Types

3.1. Organic acid

3.1.1. Carboxylic acid

3.1.2. Monocarboxylic acid: Acetic acid, Proponoic acid, Lactic acid

3.1.3. Dicarboxylic acid: Malic acid, Tartaric acid, Fumaric acid, Adipic acid

3.1.4. Tricarboxylic acid: Citric acid

3.1.5. Phenolic acid (Benzoic acid)

3.1.6. Fatty acid (Sorbic acid, Butylic acid, Caprylic acid

3.1.7. Lactones (Ascorbic acid, Gluconolactone)

3.1.8. Amino acids

3.1.9. Inorganic acid Example: Phosphoric acid(the only inorganic acid that can be used in food),Hydrochloric acid, Sulfuric acid

4. Application

4.1. Acetic acid (E260) Typical dossage: quantum satis Pickled vegetables, fish salads, sauces and salad dressings, processed meats

4.1.1. Lactic acid (E270) Typical dossage: quantum satis Processed meats, snacks, confectionery, soups and sauces, dairy, bakery, salad dressings Malic acid (E296) Typical dossage: quantum satis Beverages, low alcoholic coolers and flavoured beers, confectionery Fumaric acid (E297) Typical dossage: limited Tortillas, bakery, confectionery, desserts

5. Uses

5.1. Preservative

5.1.1. Low pH in food can stop growth or increase effectiveness of heat sterilization or antimicrobial effect of solutes

5.1.2. Anti-browning agents to maintain normal flavor, color, texture of food product

5.1.3. Help in fermentation process

5.2. Flavor adjuncts

5.2.1. Modify or enhance food flavor

5.2.2. Addition of acid in certain food

5.2.3. Different acid has different flavor profile

5.2.4. Examples: Tartaric acid with grape flavor, Phosphoric acid with coke cola flavor

5.2.5. pH control agent Maintain the acidic pH & tartness in carbonated drinks Maintain acidic fermentation processes by involving the buffering Buffering: The ability of weak acid/salt combination to control the amount of free hydrogen ions(provide protection from pH-dependent effects like color or flavor changes. Chelating Agents/ Antioxidant Synergist Chelation: Ability of acidulant to form ring structure with metal ions. Sequestration: Formation of stable, water-soluble chelate. Metals such as iron, nickel promote oxidative reactions by producing undesirable reactions such as discoloration, rancidity and instability of nutrients. Used as synergist for antioxidant(e.g. BHA & BHT) in the preservation of fats & oils, and in the food products that contain fatty compounds. Examples: Citric acid (strongest chelating agent), Lactic acid, Malic acid and Tartaric acid Control of Gelation & Coagulation