UV Exposure

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UV Exposure by Mind Map: UV Exposure

1. Health Effects

1.1. Negatives

1.1.1. Photoaging

1.1.2. Erythema (Sunburn)

1.1.3. Melanogenisis (Tanning)

1.1.3.1. Body Protecting itself

1.1.4. Immune System Damage

1.1.5. Eye damage

1.1.5.1. Pterygium

1.1.5.2. Pinguecula

1.1.5.3. Photokeratitis

1.1.6. Non Melanoma Skin Cancers

1.1.6.1. Squamous cell carcinoma

1.1.6.2. Basal Cell Carcinoma

1.1.7. Malignant Melanoma

1.2. Burden of Disease

1.2.1. Anthropological

1.2.2. Traditional

1.3. Positives

1.3.1. UVC Room Decontamination

1.3.2. Vitamin D

1.3.2.1. Cancer

1.3.2.1.1. RCT supplementation 1150 a day 77% reduction...

1.3.2.1.2. Colorectal

1.3.2.2. Cardiovascular

1.3.2.2.1. http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?volume=168&issue=11&page=1174

1.3.2.3. Autoimmune

1.3.2.3.1. biological basis- http://www.fasebj.org/content/15/14/2579.full

1.3.2.4. Atopic

1.3.2.4.1. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1399-3038.2010.01099.x/abstract

1.3.2.5. All cause mortality

1.3.2.5.1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22170374

1.3.2.5.2. Double vitamin D Global Reduction

1.3.3. Skin Disease Treatment (psoriasis, eczema...)

1.3.3.1. PUVA (Psoralen + UVA)

1.3.3.1.1. Less UVA needed

1.3.3.1.2. UVB was not effective?

1.3.4. Beyond Vitamin D Perspective...

1.3.4.1. Excersise

1.3.4.1.1. Older people

1.3.4.2. Stress Reduction

1.3.4.3. Social Inclusivity

1.3.4.4. Psychosomatic

1.3.4.5. Mood

1.3.4.5.1. SAD

1.3.4.5.2. Impact of sunlight on age of onset of Bipolar disease

1.3.4.6. Disinfection and sterilisation

1.3.5. Incidence of Diabetes

2. Human Determinants of Sun Exposure

2.1. Outdoor/Indoor Living

2.1.1. Age

2.1.1.1. Behavioural....As people age they tend to spend more time indoors, bodies less capable of dealing with weather?

2.1.1.1.1. Age and Excersise (NHANES)

2.1.2. Occupation

2.1.2.1. Late night/shift work patterns

2.1.2.2. Construction

2.1.2.3. Office work 9-5pm

2.1.2.3.1. Vitamin D synthesising wavelengths do not penetrate glass

2.1.3. Gender

2.1.3.1. In some developing countries women stay indoors more to cook and clean whereas the men will go to work outdoors... It may also be a part of the culture...women expected to stay indoors...

2.1.4. Disability

2.1.4.1. Restricted mobility

2.1.5. Pregnancy

2.1.6. Institutionalised

2.2. Instrinsic Barriers to Synthesis

2.2.1. Skin Type

2.2.1.1. Melanin blocks sunlight getting to 7-DHC

2.2.1.2. Measuring skin tyoe

2.2.1.2.1. Spectrophotometer

2.2.1.2.2. Fitzpatrick scale

2.2.1.2.3. Pigment protection factor (Wulf et al., 2010)

2.2.1.2.4. Gold Standard phototest with a solar simulator, Med is outcome (9-12 in above article)

2.2.1.3. CHanges with stress

2.2.1.3.1. http://www.fasebj.org/content/21/4/976.full

2.2.1.4. changes with age

2.2.2. Skin Age

2.2.2.1. As skin ages there is a lower concentration of 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is converted into pre-vitamin D by sunlight

2.2.3. Hair

2.2.3.1. Curly vs straight?

2.3. Extrinsic Barriers to Synthesis

2.3.1. Body Exposure (Clothing)

2.3.1.1. Culture

2.3.1.2. Fashion

2.3.1.3. Air temperature

2.3.1.4. Horizontal planar to human body

2.3.1.5. Full body/small area exposed.... Same linear dose relationship?

2.3.2. Sunscreen

2.3.2.1. Log scale of SPF to reduction of sunlight getting through

2.3.2.2. Daily sun protection?

2.3.3. Shade

2.3.4. New node

3. Measurement of UV Exposure

3.1. Latitude

3.1.1. Worldwide +

3.1.2. Regional -

3.2. Dosimeters

3.2.1. Electronic Ultra Violet

3.2.2. Polysulphane

3.2.3. Link with Accelorometer

3.2.4. Link with GPS?

3.2.5. ELDONET?

3.3. Sun Questionnaires and Sun Diaries

3.3.1. + good association with dosimeter

3.3.2. - Not good association with dosimeter

3.4. Artificial Sources

3.4.1. Enough to maintain a suffient vitmain D status

3.4.2. Comparison between natural and artificial on vitamin D effect

3.5. Metereological

3.5.1. Observational

3.5.1.1. Pyronometer

3.5.1.2. Pyrheliometer

3.5.1.3. Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorders

3.5.1.4. rotating diaphragm or mirror

3.5.2. Modelled

3.5.3. Satellite

3.6. Proxies

3.6.1. Sunshine Hours measured by a Cambell Stokes Sunshine Recorder

3.6.1.1. Threshold is 120W/m2

3.6.2. Solar Radiation

3.6.2.1. WEXP

3.6.2.2. SoDa

4. Natural Determinants of Sun Exposure

4.1. Solar Zenith Angle

4.1.1. Latitude

4.1.2. Season

4.1.3. Time of Day

4.2. Spectral

4.2.1. Altitude

4.2.2. Cloud Cover

4.2.3. Pollution/Aerosols

4.2.4. Albedo

4.2.5. Ozone

4.2.6. Spectral Research

4.2.6.1. Long Term Atmospheric Change

4.2.6.2. Urban Climatology

4.2.6.3. Recreational Human Behaviour

5. The Components of Sun Exposure

5.1. Electromagnetic Spectrum

5.2. Ultra Violet Spectrum

5.2.1. UVA (315-400nm)

5.2.2. UVB (280-315nm)

5.2.3. UVC (100-280nm)

5.3. Research

5.3.1. Erythema Action Spectrum

5.3.1.1. Minimum Erythemal Dose (dose required to cause minimal reddening)

5.3.1.2. Standard Erythemal Dose (100J m2)

5.3.1.3. Ultraviolet Light Index

5.3.1.3.1. Sunsafe App

5.3.2. Pre-Vitamin D Action Spectrum

5.3.2.1. Vitamin D "Winters"

5.3.2.2. Vitamin D effective Doses (VDED)

5.3.2.3. Dirurnal Pattern in Vitamin D effective wavelengths (UVA:UVB ratio)

5.3.2.4. Duration of time for Standard Vitamin D Dose (SDD)

5.3.2.4.1. 1/4 MED to 1/4 of the body to produce 1000IU of Vitamin D (Holick's Rule)

6. 25(OH)D Measurement

7. UV and 25(OH)D