UV Exposure

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UV Exposure by Mind Map: UV Exposure

1. Health Effects

1.1. Negatives

1.1.1. Photoaging

1.1.2. Erythema (Sunburn)

1.1.3. Melanogenisis (Tanning) Body Protecting itself

1.1.4. Immune System Damage

1.1.5. Eye damage Pterygium Pinguecula Photokeratitis

1.1.6. Non Melanoma Skin Cancers Squamous cell carcinoma Basal Cell Carcinoma

1.1.7. Malignant Melanoma

1.2. Burden of Disease

1.2.1. Anthropological

1.2.2. Traditional

1.3. Positives

1.3.1. UVC Room Decontamination

1.3.2. Vitamin D Cancer RCT supplementation 1150 a day 77% reduction... Colorectal Cardiovascular http://archinte.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?volume=168&issue=11&page=1174 Autoimmune biological basis- http://www.fasebj.org/content/15/14/2579.full Atopic http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1399-3038.2010.01099.x/abstract All cause mortality http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22170374 Double vitamin D Global Reduction

1.3.3. Skin Disease Treatment (psoriasis, eczema...) PUVA (Psoralen + UVA) Less UVA needed UVB was not effective?

1.3.4. Beyond Vitamin D Perspective... Excersise Older people Stress Reduction Social Inclusivity Psychosomatic Mood SAD Impact of sunlight on age of onset of Bipolar disease Disinfection and sterilisation

1.3.5. Incidence of Diabetes

2. Human Determinants of Sun Exposure

2.1. Outdoor/Indoor Living

2.1.1. Age Behavioural....As people age they tend to spend more time indoors, bodies less capable of dealing with weather? Age and Excersise (NHANES)

2.1.2. Occupation Late night/shift work patterns Construction Office work 9-5pm Vitamin D synthesising wavelengths do not penetrate glass

2.1.3. Gender In some developing countries women stay indoors more to cook and clean whereas the men will go to work outdoors... It may also be a part of the culture...women expected to stay indoors...

2.1.4. Disability Restricted mobility

2.1.5. Pregnancy

2.1.6. Institutionalised

2.2. Instrinsic Barriers to Synthesis

2.2.1. Skin Type Melanin blocks sunlight getting to 7-DHC Measuring skin tyoe Spectrophotometer Fitzpatrick scale Pigment protection factor (Wulf et al., 2010) Gold Standard phototest with a solar simulator, Med is outcome (9-12 in above article) CHanges with stress http://www.fasebj.org/content/21/4/976.full changes with age

2.2.2. Skin Age As skin ages there is a lower concentration of 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is converted into pre-vitamin D by sunlight

2.2.3. Hair Curly vs straight?

2.3. Extrinsic Barriers to Synthesis

2.3.1. Body Exposure (Clothing) Culture Fashion Air temperature Horizontal planar to human body Full body/small area exposed.... Same linear dose relationship?

2.3.2. Sunscreen Log scale of SPF to reduction of sunlight getting through Daily sun protection?

2.3.3. Shade

2.3.4. New node

3. Measurement of UV Exposure

3.1. Latitude

3.1.1. Worldwide +

3.1.2. Regional -

3.2. Dosimeters

3.2.1. Electronic Ultra Violet

3.2.2. Polysulphane

3.2.3. Link with Accelorometer

3.2.4. Link with GPS?

3.2.5. ELDONET?

3.3. Sun Questionnaires and Sun Diaries

3.3.1. + good association with dosimeter

3.3.2. - Not good association with dosimeter

3.4. Artificial Sources

3.4.1. Enough to maintain a suffient vitmain D status

3.4.2. Comparison between natural and artificial on vitamin D effect

3.5. Metereological

3.5.1. Observational Pyronometer Pyrheliometer Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorders rotating diaphragm or mirror

3.5.2. Modelled

3.5.3. Satellite

3.6. Proxies

3.6.1. Sunshine Hours measured by a Cambell Stokes Sunshine Recorder Threshold is 120W/m2

3.6.2. Solar Radiation WEXP SoDa

4. Natural Determinants of Sun Exposure

4.1. Solar Zenith Angle

4.1.1. Latitude

4.1.2. Season

4.1.3. Time of Day

4.2. Spectral

4.2.1. Altitude

4.2.2. Cloud Cover

4.2.3. Pollution/Aerosols

4.2.4. Albedo

4.2.5. Ozone

4.2.6. Spectral Research Long Term Atmospheric Change Urban Climatology Recreational Human Behaviour

5. The Components of Sun Exposure

5.1. Electromagnetic Spectrum

5.2. Ultra Violet Spectrum

5.2.1. UVA (315-400nm)

5.2.2. UVB (280-315nm)

5.2.3. UVC (100-280nm)

5.3. Research

5.3.1. Erythema Action Spectrum Minimum Erythemal Dose (dose required to cause minimal reddening) Standard Erythemal Dose (100J m2) Ultraviolet Light Index Sunsafe App

5.3.2. Pre-Vitamin D Action Spectrum Vitamin D "Winters" Vitamin D effective Doses (VDED) Dirurnal Pattern in Vitamin D effective wavelengths (UVA:UVB ratio) Duration of time for Standard Vitamin D Dose (SDD) 1/4 MED to 1/4 of the body to produce 1000IU of Vitamin D (Holick's Rule)

6. 25(OH)D Measurement

7. UV and 25(OH)D