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1.1. Firgurative uses of language violates or breaks the selectional restrictions, but are interpretable

1.1.1. Literal: An intruder attacked me. Metaphorical: Envy attacked me. *Anomalous: The rock attacked me

1.2. Types of firgurative language

1.2.1. Oxymoron (paradox) refers to expressions which contain an explicit contradiction delicious torment, living death, sweet sorrow, silent scream, cold comfort

1.2.2. Tautology refers to expressions which are “true by definition”, offering no new information new innovation, past history, "A gander is a male goose", "An orphan is a parentless child"

1.2.3. Synesthesia refers to expressions which combine a word from one sensory domain with a word from another sensory domain cold response, sweet sound, cool reception

1.2.4. Synecdoche refers to expressions which refer to a thing by naming part of it a new face or new blood (= a new person)

1.2.5. Metonymy refers to expressions which denote a thing by naming something associated with it the crown, the throne (= the king) . the bench (= the judiciary)

1.2.6. Personification refers to expressions which attribute human qualities to nonhuman or inanimate objects The idea grabbed me, The vending machine ate my money.

1.2.7. Metaphor refers to expressions which transfer a word from one conceptual domain to another, which all violate the selectional restrictions Stock prices are falling. There was a pregnant pause. ..............lip of a glass, mouth of a river


2.1. Definition

2.1.1. The prototype theory, proposed by psychologist Eleanor Rosch in 1973, argues that we understand the meaning of a word because we have a prototypical concept of the category to which the thing belongs

2.1.2. All members of the category are judged in relation to this prototype

2.2. Clarification (For example: DOG)

2.2.1. Core members: most closely resembling prototype: shepherds, terriers, poodles

2.2.2. Peripheral members: not quickly, easily identified as prototype: coyotes, jackals, wolves


3.1. Definition

3.1.1. A sentence that has no meaning in the everyday world "He swallowed a dream", "The rock giggled"

3.2. Selectional restrictions

3.2.1. Requirements on the compatibility or combinability of words, that is, when a word appears, it contain certain semantic features, but it may also require that words with which it cooccurs contain certain features fly – requires [+WINGED] subject {The airplane, the bird} flew north.

3.2.2. Semantic anomaly appears when selectional restrictions are violated {*The goat} flew north.