LOOP - a book "about power relations and how they are experienced by the poor" (5).

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LOOP - a book "about power relations and how they are experienced by the poor" (5). by Mind Map: LOOP - a book "about power relations and how they are experienced by the poor" (5).

1. CH 2

1.1. Gloria

1.1.1. moved out of home leaving young teen children

1.1.1.1. still sole provider for those children

1.1.1.2. ruled from afar: still financially supports, but relieved of cooking/cleaning/laundry

1.1.2. financial situation improved from 1st mtg with goldstein

1.1.2.1. before: slave to providing for children

1.1.2.1.1. woke at 5:30a

1.1.2.1.2. 14-15 hour days

1.1.2.1.3. 1-2 hours traveling from job to job

1.1.2.1.4. "heavy-duty day cleaner"

1.1.2.1.5. daily pay -- advantage

1.1.2.2. now: making more money able to gain some independence

1.1.3. History: recalls childhood

1.1.3.1. began working at 9 y.o.

1.1.3.2. "not too far removed from slavery"

1.1.4. Gloria now working for Dona Beth in Zona Sul

1.1.4.1. Zona Sul

1.1.4.1.1. wealthier middle class area

1.1.4.1.2. working class not really welcomed in stores and restaurants

1.1.4.2. Dona Beth

1.1.4.2.1. 50ish

1.1.4.2.2. Upper Middle Class

1.1.4.2.3. small, well-appointed home

1.1.4.2.4. traveled to Europe, US

1.1.4.2.5. paid Gloria 5x minimum wage

1.1.4.2.6. provided Soneca a place to stay with her baby

1.1.4.3. Nilda (Beth's daughter-in-law

1.1.4.3.1. Gloria struggled to defer to her

1.1.4.3.2. "gente como nos"

1.2. Brazilian culture

1.2.1. racial and class characteristics affect employability

1.2.1.1. highly skewed and unequal economy

1.2.1.2. 'boa aparencia': phrase often used to discourage afro-brazilian women from applying for jobs

1.2.2. historical identity construction of middle class

1.2.2.1. all expect to be able to afford person to cook/clean for them

1.2.2.1.1. projects image of success; free from degradation of manual labor

1.2.2.1.2. provides situational dominance over servant

1.2.2.2. dependent on others to do the work

1.2.2.3. apartment divided into specific zones

1.2.2.3.1. social area

1.2.2.3.2. intimate area

1.2.2.3.3. service area

1.2.3. Rio

1.2.3.1. most unequal distribution of wealth

1.2.3.1.1. prominent Elite class

1.2.3.1.2. very little middle class

1.2.3.1.3. large number of extremely poor

1.2.3.2. City of extremes

1.2.3.2.1. gross poverty

1.2.3.2.2. extreme wealth

1.2.4. Domestic worker stereotype

1.2.4.1. talk differently

1.2.4.1.1. uneducated

1.2.4.1.2. can't tell story

1.2.4.2. "low other"

1.2.4.2.1. reminds middle and upper class what they need to strive not to be

1.2.4.3. physical separation

1.2.4.3.1. zones of apartmetn

1.2.4.3.2. service entrances

1.2.4.4. euphemizing of class

1.2.4.4.1. paternalism

1.2.4.4.2. to express domination?

1.3. Flicidade Eterna

1.3.1. children expected to work from young age

1.3.2. grade school was loud, poorly stocked and low priorirty

1.3.3. Darlene: chose employment as sex worker over domestic work.

2. CH 3

2.1. Brazilian Culture

2.1.1. Color

2.1.1.1. "natural" indicator of class relationship

2.1.1.2. no civil rights movement

2.1.1.2.1. series of historical events allowed acceptance of mesticagem (blending)

2.1.1.2.2. No legally sanctioned racism but still structures of racism exist

2.1.1.3. purely african or elements closely associated with slavery are denigrated

2.1.1.4. multiple racial identities v. the bipolar racial identity in north america

2.1.1.4.1. black

2.1.1.4.2. white

2.1.1.4.3. brown/mixed

2.1.1.4.4. dark

2.1.1.4.5. light

2.1.1.4.6. closed

2.1.1.4.7. freckled

2.1.1.5. representations of color

2.1.1.5.1. coroa

2.1.1.5.2. O Cortico//The Slum

2.1.1.5.3. mulata imagery

2.1.1.5.4. "whitening"

2.1.1.6. Movimento Negro

2.1.1.6.1. attempting to bring attention to racial discrimination

2.1.1.6.2. successes in mostly middle class and elite

2.1.2. Class

2.1.2.1. tied to color

2.1.2.1.1. white = upper; black = lower

2.1.2.1.2. some exceptions: "Black Cinderella"

2.1.2.2. poverty conceptualized as a class problem not a race problem

2.1.2.3. living in a favela is automatic class marker

2.1.3. "The idea that Brazil is a color-blind erotic democracy--that the power associated with gender, race, and class plays no role in sexual partnerships--helps to mask and normalize everyday racism and internalized racism in Brazil." (135)

2.2. Gloria

2.2.1. illustrates ways that valuations of color/social mobility play out

2.2.2. Many of her friends/neighbors believe their best chance of "making it" is seducing older white men with money

2.2.2.1. age and wealth/class are primary factors

2.2.2.2. coroa's CAN be black

2.2.2.3. social status raised only through successfully seducing a coroa

2.2.2.4. coroas can provide medical care, funds necessary for survival

2.2.3. two kisses: goldstein (white) greeted with kisses; Gloria an dJanaina were not

2.2.4. internalized racism -- Roberto's gf was too dark

3. Intro

3.1. Intended research

3.1.1. effect of state and transnational processes on citizens

3.1.2. evaluate structures of power

3.1.3. Chart intersections of hierarchies

3.1.3.1. race

3.1.3.2. class

3.1.3.3. gender

3.1.3.4. sexuality

3.2. Actual findings

3.2.1. Humor

3.2.1.1. gave voice to women

3.2.1.2. escapes the hierarchies

3.2.1.2.1. but still intimately connected

3.2.1.3. similar to that of Goldstein's friends and relatives (Holocaust survivors)?

3.2.1.4. LAUGHTER

3.2.1.4.1. What does it represent?

3.2.1.4.2. "reveal both the cracks in the syustem and the masked or more subtle ways power is challenged" (5)

3.2.1.5. fugitive forms of insubordination

3.2.1.6. Jokes - powerful window into the trials and tribulations of the psyche [Freud] (pg)

3.2.2. Women

3.2.2.1. impoverished

3.2.2.2. largely nonliterate

3.2.2.3. urban

3.2.2.4. historically oppressed

3.2.2.4.1. how?

3.2.2.5. largely oral culture

3.2.2.5.1. ignored by elite

3.2.2.6. Gloria and family - case study

3.2.3. Gloria & family = case study

4. CH 1

4.1. GLORIA

4.1.1. Mother

4.1.1.1. Soneca

4.1.1.2. Zeca

4.1.1.2.1. ill?

4.1.1.2.2. died young

4.1.1.3. Filomena

4.1.1.3.1. Boyfriend: Adilson

4.1.1.3.2. Son: David

4.1.1.3.3. Kicked out of house at 15 years old

4.1.1.4. Felix

4.1.1.5. Tiago

4.1.1.6. Anita

4.1.1.7. Also took in her sister's children

4.1.1.7.1. Lucas

4.1.1.7.2. Marta

4.1.1.7.3. Claudia

4.1.1.7.4. Alexandro

4.1.1.7.5. Roberto

4.1.1.8. And 3 of her former lover's children

4.1.1.9. Pedro Paulo

4.1.1.9.1. Oldest child

4.1.1.9.2. wrong path

4.1.1.9.3. jail

4.1.1.9.4. died young

4.1.1.9.5. more politicized than his contemporaries

4.1.2. lives near the "barrier" in the less established area of F.E.

4.2. Felicidade Eterna

4.2.1. Residents

4.2.1.1. 2 or 3 families own cars

4.2.1.1.1. old

4.2.1.1.2. never seen running

4.2.1.2. living conditions

4.2.1.2.1. Some ramshackle shacks

4.2.1.2.2. some nicely painted, cute

4.2.1.2.3. like Trinidad?

4.2.1.2.4. Houses on main street nicer, better established

4.2.1.3. Economically diverse: very poor to relatively wealthy

4.2.2. Narrow streets

4.2.3. some Dark, debris strewn streets

4.2.4. Small -- fewer than 100 houses

4.2.5. Barreira: border area, barrier

4.2.5.1. where Gloria lives

4.2.5.2. was surrounded by wire fence; gov't replaced with barbed wire

4.2.5.2.1. gov't built low income housing outside

4.2.5.3. Houses

4.2.5.3.1. like Trinidad?

4.2.5.3.2. Mostly small shacks made of found materials

4.2.6. Outskirts of RIO de JANEIRO

4.2.6.1. City of contrasts

4.2.6.1.1. romantic

4.2.6.1.2. Dark

5. CH 4

5.1. Brazilian Culture

5.1.1. crentes

5.1.1.1. (new religious converts) sneak in to jails under false pretenses to make themselves emotionally/sexually available to prisoners to try to convert them

5.1.2. Children

5.1.2.1. "when child is king"

5.1.2.1.1. discussion of middle and upper class children by Italian psychoanalyst Contardo Calligaris

5.1.2.1.2. middle/upper class kids have newest fashions, cars, eat in restaurants, etc

5.1.2.2. Street children

5.1.2.2.1. contrast the "child kings"--death squads (off duty police[!!]) organized to exterminate them

5.1.2.2.2. seen as a growing population of "irredeemable criminals"

5.1.2.2.3. also seen as innocent victims of social and economic conditions

5.1.2.2.4. often recruited into criminal activities to avoid harsher sentences for the criminals they work for

5.1.2.3. Institutionalized Children

5.1.2.3.1. cruelties

5.1.2.3.2. FUNABEM

5.1.2.4. child-rearing philosophies

5.1.2.4.1. scientific psychology/therapeutic discourse practiced in upper classes.

5.1.2.4.2. life in favela renders this of little use

5.2. Gloria

5.2.1. death of Pedro Paulo

5.2.1.1. cried too many tears as he went down wrong path, none left to cry at his death

5.2.1.2. tells goldstein she'll "laugh about it too"

5.2.1.3. relays story to son's father without emotion, impatient with father's tears

5.2.2. disciplinarian/taskmaster to children

5.2.2.1. tried to keep her children from gangs

5.2.2.1.1. mostly succeeded except Pedro Paulo and Lucas

5.2.2.1.2. feared their tattered clothes would result in their being mistaken for street children and killed

5.2.2.2. harsh, even cruel, punishments

5.2.2.2.1. trying to save them by training them

5.2.2.2.2. questionable whether her methods actually work

5.3. Goldstein

5.3.1. first hand experience in the prison with events that "aren't funny at the time" but gain humor as time goes by

5.3.2. listens to "funny stories" from Gloria's children while Gloria is working.

6. CH 5

6.1. Brazilian culture

6.1.1. favela crime & punishment

6.1.1.1. most of the punishment exacted by gangs or residents

6.1.1.1.1. drug trade

6.1.1.1.2. rape of child

6.1.1.1.3. spousal abuse and adultery (by husband)

6.1.1.1.4. "petty theft"

6.1.1.1.5. adultery (by wife)

6.1.1.1.6. sexual abuse

6.1.1.2. corrupt police don't hold much authority

6.1.2. "ZONES"

6.1.2.1. Blue

6.1.2.1.1. high level of state presence

6.1.2.1.2. effective bureaucracy

6.1.2.1.3. properly functioning legal system

6.1.2.2. Green

6.1.2.2.1. high degree of territorial penetration

6.1.2.2.2. lower presence of state in functional and class terms

6.1.2.3. Brown

6.1.2.3.1. very low or negligible state presence in both divisions

6.1.2.3.2. state unable to enforce legality

6.1.2.3.3. gangs provide alternative rule of law

6.1.3. criminalization of the poor

6.1.4. institutionally corrupt police

6.1.5. religious conversio possibly used to ward off effects of decline of society

6.1.5.1. pentecostal

6.1.5.2. evangelical

6.1.5.3. catholic

6.2. Felicidade Eterna

6.2.1. majority of population hard-working and honest

6.2.2. obvious sympathy toward gangs over police

6.3. Goldstein

7. CH 6

7.1. Brazilian Culture

7.1.1. very sexual culture

7.1.1.1. sexual teasing and banter common

7.1.1.2. sexual excesses - infidelity

7.1.1.2.1. possible double standard: ok for men, less publicized for women

7.1.1.3. sex-positiveness

7.1.1.4. sexual permissiveness

7.1.1.5. sexual hierarchy

7.1.1.5.1. active/masculine/dominating=comer

7.1.1.5.2. passive/feminine/submissive=dar

7.1.1.6. infidelity

7.1.1.6.1. male: included in the expected repertoire of behavior

7.1.1.6.2. female: shameful to their partners

7.1.1.7. eroticized tropical paradise

7.1.1.8. public flirtation is desirable

7.1.2. Feminism

7.1.2.1. significant body of work

7.1.2.2. less often cited in anthropological literature on sexuality

7.1.2.2.1. too essentialist

7.1.2.2.2. "sex-negative"

7.1.2.3. two distinct feminisms emerged during military dictatorship

7.1.2.3.1. one that ultimately joined the left in an attempt to reorganize the country

7.1.2.3.2. the other becamer perceived as bourgeois lesbians

7.2. Felicidade Eterna

7.2.1. sexual banter

7.2.1.1. reveals local sexual culture

7.2.1.2. practiced by young and old

7.2.1.3. both telling the story/joke and response to it is important

7.2.2. women subvert the hierarchy through jokes/stories

7.2.2.1. empowering

7.2.2.2. Gloria: punched rude ex-lover

7.2.2.3. Soneca: manipulated men into providing for her financially (even w/o sex)

7.2.2.4. Eliana & Darlene: long affairs with married men who provide for them

7.2.2.5. Sarlete: "kills" men she sleeps with

8. CH 7

8.1. Felicidade Eterna

8.1.1. Marlia

8.1.1.1. difficult life

8.1.1.2. tried to kill her husband to avoid further abuse

8.1.2. Gloria

8.1.2.1. Moved back to Felicidade Eterna after the rape of her daughter and niece

8.1.2.1.1. Anita had already lost virginity, become pregnant by her boyfriend but blamed pregnancy on rape to avoid Gloria's wrath.

8.1.2.1.2. Claudia was virgin; went crazy after

8.1.2.2. tired of supporting her "irresponsible" boyfriends and her daughters and their offspring

8.2. Generally

8.2.1. rape cases are difficult or impossible to prosecute so many don't even bother

8.2.2. humor is the only recourse; survival mechanism