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Unit 2 by Mind Map: Unit 2

1. Past Perfect Simple

1.1. uses

1.1.1. The past perfect refers to a time earlier than before now. It is used to make it clear that one event happened before another in the past. It does not matter which event is mentioned first

1.2. positive

1.2.1. structure subject + had + past participle

1.2.2. example 1.-After Sofie had finished her work, she went to lunch. 2.-I washed the floor when the painter had gone. 3.-Harold had known about it for a while.

1.3. negative

1.3.1. structure subject + had not(hadn't) + past participle

1.3.2. example 1.-I had not eaten at that restaurant before today. 2.-Samantha hadn’t had time to explain her side of the story. 3.-My friends hadn’t ever gone to France.

2. Past Perfect Continuous.

2.1. uses

2.1.1. The past perfect continuous tense (also known as the past perfect progressive tense) shows that an action that started in the past continued up until another time in the past.

2.2. positive

2.2.1. structure subject + had + been + V-ing

2.2.2. examples 1.-They had been talking for over an hour before Tony arrived. 2.-She had been working at that company for three years when it went out of business. 3.-Mike wanted to sit down because he had been standing all day at work.

2.3. negative

2.3.1. structure subject + had not(hadn't) + been + V-ing

2.3.2. examples 1.-They hadn't been speaking to each other for years. 2.-They had not been taking good care of their health. 3.-I hadn't been drinking alcohol for a long time either.