Conflict and negotiation in the Workplace

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Conflict and negotiation in the Workplace by Mind Map: Conflict and negotiation in the Workplace

1. DEFINITION: A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, something that the first party cares about.

2. Forms of Interactionist Conflict

2.1. Dysfunctional Conflict

2.1.1. Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance

2.2. Functional Conflict

2.2.1. Conflict that hinders group performance

3. Level of Conflict on Organizational Performance

3.1. Two variables: Level of Group Performance and Level of Conflict

3.1.1. Low Group Performance with Low level of Conflict

3.1.1.1. Dysfunctional Conflict

3.1.1.2. Apathetic, Stagnant, Unresponsive to change, Lack of New Ideas

3.1.2. High Group Performance and High Level of Conflict

3.1.2.1. Functional Conflict

3.1.2.2. Viable, Self-Critical, Innovative

3.1.3. Low Group Performance with High Level of Conflict

3.1.3.1. Dysfunctional Conflict

3.1.3.2. Disruptive, Chaotic, Uncooperative

3.2. Inverted U-shape

4. Three Types of Conflict and Three Loci of Conflict

4.1. Loci of Conflict

4.1.1. Intergroup conflict is conflict between groups or teams

4.1.2. Intragroup conflict

4.1.3. Dyadic conflict is conflict between two people

4.2. Types of Conflict

4.2.1. Task conflict relates to the content and goals of the work

4.2.2. Relationship conflict focuses on interpersonal relationships

4.2.3. Process conflict is about how the work gets done

5. Outline the Conflict Process

5.1. Stage I Potential opposition or incompatibility

5.1.1. Antecedent conditions: Communication, Structure, Personal variables

5.2. Stage II Cognition and personalization

5.2.1. Perceived conflict or felt conflict

5.3. Stage III Intentions

5.3.1. Conflict-handling intentions: Competing, Collaborating, Compromising, Avoiding, Accommodating

5.4. Stage IV Behavior

5.4.1. Overt conflict: Party's behavior, Other's reaction

5.5. Stage V Outcomes

5.5.1. Increased group performance or Decreased group performance

6. Causes of Conflict

6.1. Escalation of conflict when

6.1.1. Number of parties grow

6.1.2. Communication problem

6.1.3. Number of issues grows

6.1.4. Issues move from specific to general

6.1.5. Goals change

6.2. Conflicts may arise due to

6.2.1. Organizational complexity

6.2.2. Overlapping or unclear boundaries

6.2.3. Incompatibilities

6.2.4. Interdependencies

6.2.5. Competition over limited resources

6.2.6. Unreasonable or unclear organizational polices

7. Is Conflict Good or Bad

7.1. Positive Outcomes

7.1.1. Stronger team cohesion (conflict between the team and outside opponents)

7.1.2. More responsive to the changing environment

7.1.3. Better decision making: Tests logic of arguments, Questions assumptions

7.2. Negative Outcomes

7.2.1. Weakened team cohesion (conflict among team members)

7.2.2. Less information sharing and coordination

7.2.3. Higher stress, disastisfaction and turnover

7.2.4. Lower performance

7.2.5. Increased organizational politics

7.2.6. Wasted resources

8. Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument

8.1. Two Variables: Assertiveness and cooperativeness

8.1.1. Compromising: trying to find an acceptable settlement that only partially satisfies both people's concerns

8.1.2. Competing: trying to satisfy your concerns at the expense of others

8.1.3. Collaborating: trying to find a win-win solution which completely satisfies both people's concerns

8.1.4. Accommodating: trying to satisfy the other person's concerns at expense of your own

8.1.5. Avoiding: sidestepping the conflict

9. Conflict management

9.1. Defined as the opportunity to improve situations and strengthen relationships

9.2. Factors influencing conflict management styles

9.2.1. Expectations: relationship

9.2.2. Gender

9.2.3. Past experiences

9.2.4. Situation

9.2.5. Position/Role/Power

9.2.6. Culture

9.3. Structural Approaches to Conflict Management

9.3.1. Increase resources

9.3.1.1. Weigh costs versus conflict

9.3.2. Improve communication and understanding

9.3.2.1. Contact hypothesis and Johari window activities

9.3.3. Reduce differentiation

9.3.3.1. Create common experiences

9.3.4. Emphasize superordinate goals

9.3.4.1. Focus on common goals

9.3.5. Reduce interdependence

9.3.5.1. Combine jobs into one

9.3.5.2. Use integrators

9.3.5.3. Create buffers

9.3.6. Clarify rules and procedures

9.3.6.1. Clarify roles, responsibilities, schedules etc.

10. Negotiation

10.1. Defined as a give-and-take decision-making process involving two or more parties with different preferences

10.1.1. Integrative: Win-Win

10.1.2. Distributive: Win-Lose

10.2. Using Third-Party Negotiations

10.2.1. Mediation

10.2.1.1. Allowing a neutral third party to act as a facilitator through the application of reasoning, suggestion, and persuasion

10.2.2. Conciliation

10.2.2.1. Occurs where the third party is someone who is trusted by both sides and services primarily as a communication link between the disagreeing parties

10.2.3. Arbitration

10.2.3.1. Is where the third party has the power (authority) to impose an agreement

10.3. How individual differences influence Negotiations

10.3.1. Personality Traits in Negotiation

10.3.1.1. Evidence states that you can sort of predict an opponent's negotiating tactics if you know something about his/her personality.

10.3.2. Moods/Emotions in Negotiation

10.3.2.1. Influence negotiation, but the way they do appears to depend on the type of negotiation

10.3.3. Culture in Negotiations

10.3.3.1. People generally negotiate more effectively within cultures than between them.

10.3.3.2. In cross-cultural negotiations, it is important that the negotiators be high in openness.

10.3.3.3. People are more likely to use certain negotiation strategies depending on what culture they belong to.

10.4. Gender Differences in Negotiations

10.4.1. Men and women negotiate differently, and these differences affect outcomes.

10.4.2. There is some merit to the popular stereotype that women are more cooperative, pleasant, and relationship-oriented in negotiations than are men.

10.5. Considerations When Choosing a Negotiation Approach

10.5.1. Know who you are

10.5.2. Manage outcome expectations

10.5.3. Consider the other person's outcome

10.5.4. Adhere to standards of justice

10.5.5. Remember your reputation

10.6. Emotions in Negotiation

10.6.1. Identify your ideal emotions

10.6.1.1. Match your emotions to your objectives

10.6.2. Manage your emotions

10.6.2.1. Take steps to promote positive emotion

10.6.3. Know your hot buttons

10.6.4. Keep your balance

10.6.4.1. Know when to break or redirect

10.6.5. Identify your take-away emotions

10.6.5.1. Set a goal for emotions

10.7. Ethics in Negotiations

10.7.1. The success of negotiations is influenced by the quality of information exchanged.

10.7.2. Telling lies, hiding key facts, and engaging in other potentially unethical tactics erodes trust and goodwill.

10.8. Managing Conflict and Negotiations: Putting it all in Context

10.8.1. Inputs

10.8.1.1. Person Factors

10.8.1.1.1. Personality

10.8.1.1.2. Experience

10.8.1.1.3. Skills and abilities

10.8.1.1.4. Conflict-handling styles

10.8.1.1.5. Values

10.8.1.1.6. Needs

10.8.1.1.7. Mindfulness

10.8.1.1.8. Ethics

10.8.1.1.9. Incivility

10.8.1.2. Situation Factors

10.8.1.2.1. Leadership

10.8.1.2.2. Relationship quality

10.8.1.2.3. Organizational climate

10.8.1.2.4. Stressors

10.8.1.2.5. Incivility

10.8.1.2.6. Alternative dispute resolution practices

10.8.2. Processes

10.8.2.1. Individual Level

10.8.2.1.1. Communication

10.8.2.1.2. Performance management practices

10.8.2.1.3. Conflict and negotiation

10.8.2.1.4. Emotions

10.8.2.1.5. Interpersonal skills

10.8.2.1.6. Trust

10.8.2.2. Group/ Team Level

10.8.2.2.1. Trust

10.8.2.2.2. Communication

10.8.2.2.3. Group/team dynamics

10.8.2.2.4. Conflict and negotiation

10.8.2.2.5. Decision making

10.8.2.2.6. Performance management

10.8.2.2.7. Leadership

10.8.2.3. Organizational Level

10.8.2.3.1. Human resource policies and practices

10.8.2.3.2. Communication

10.8.2.3.3. Leading and managing change and stress

10.8.3. Outcomes

10.8.3.1. Individual Level

10.8.3.1.1. Task performance

10.8.3.1.2. Work attitudes

10.8.3.1.3. Citizenship behavior/ counterproductive behavior

10.8.3.1.4. Turnover

10.8.3.1.5. Career outcomes

10.8.3.1.6. Creativity

10.8.3.2. Group/Team Level

10.8.3.2.1. Group/ team performance

10.8.3.2.2. Group cohesion and conflict

10.8.3.2.3. Group satisfaction

10.8.3.3. Organizational Level

10.8.3.3.1. Accounting/ financial performance

10.8.3.3.2. Customer satisfaction

10.8.3.3.3. Innovation

10.8.3.3.4. Reputation