Conflict and negotiation in the Workplace

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Conflict and negotiation in the Workplace by Mind Map: Conflict and negotiation in the Workplace

1. DEFINITION: A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, something that the first party cares about.

2. Forms of Interactionist Conflict

2.1. Dysfunctional Conflict

2.1.1. Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance

2.2. Functional Conflict

2.2.1. Conflict that hinders group performance

3. Level of Conflict on Organizational Performance

3.1. Two variables: Level of Group Performance and Level of Conflict

3.1.1. Low Group Performance with Low level of Conflict Dysfunctional Conflict Apathetic, Stagnant, Unresponsive to change, Lack of New Ideas

3.1.2. High Group Performance and High Level of Conflict Functional Conflict Viable, Self-Critical, Innovative

3.1.3. Low Group Performance with High Level of Conflict Dysfunctional Conflict Disruptive, Chaotic, Uncooperative

3.2. Inverted U-shape

4. Three Types of Conflict and Three Loci of Conflict

4.1. Loci of Conflict

4.1.1. Intergroup conflict is conflict between groups or teams

4.1.2. Intragroup conflict

4.1.3. Dyadic conflict is conflict between two people

4.2. Types of Conflict

4.2.1. Task conflict relates to the content and goals of the work

4.2.2. Relationship conflict focuses on interpersonal relationships

4.2.3. Process conflict is about how the work gets done

5. Outline the Conflict Process

5.1. Stage I Potential opposition or incompatibility

5.1.1. Antecedent conditions: Communication, Structure, Personal variables

5.2. Stage II Cognition and personalization

5.2.1. Perceived conflict or felt conflict

5.3. Stage III Intentions

5.3.1. Conflict-handling intentions: Competing, Collaborating, Compromising, Avoiding, Accommodating

5.4. Stage IV Behavior

5.4.1. Overt conflict: Party's behavior, Other's reaction

5.5. Stage V Outcomes

5.5.1. Increased group performance or Decreased group performance

6. Causes of Conflict

6.1. Escalation of conflict when

6.1.1. Number of parties grow

6.1.2. Communication problem

6.1.3. Number of issues grows

6.1.4. Issues move from specific to general

6.1.5. Goals change

6.2. Conflicts may arise due to

6.2.1. Organizational complexity

6.2.2. Overlapping or unclear boundaries

6.2.3. Incompatibilities

6.2.4. Interdependencies

6.2.5. Competition over limited resources

6.2.6. Unreasonable or unclear organizational polices

7. Is Conflict Good or Bad

7.1. Positive Outcomes

7.1.1. Stronger team cohesion (conflict between the team and outside opponents)

7.1.2. More responsive to the changing environment

7.1.3. Better decision making: Tests logic of arguments, Questions assumptions

7.2. Negative Outcomes

7.2.1. Weakened team cohesion (conflict among team members)

7.2.2. Less information sharing and coordination

7.2.3. Higher stress, disastisfaction and turnover

7.2.4. Lower performance

7.2.5. Increased organizational politics

7.2.6. Wasted resources

8. Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument

8.1. Two Variables: Assertiveness and cooperativeness

8.1.1. Compromising: trying to find an acceptable settlement that only partially satisfies both people's concerns

8.1.2. Competing: trying to satisfy your concerns at the expense of others

8.1.3. Collaborating: trying to find a win-win solution which completely satisfies both people's concerns

8.1.4. Accommodating: trying to satisfy the other person's concerns at expense of your own

8.1.5. Avoiding: sidestepping the conflict

9. Conflict management

9.1. Defined as the opportunity to improve situations and strengthen relationships

9.2. Factors influencing conflict management styles

9.2.1. Expectations: relationship

9.2.2. Gender

9.2.3. Past experiences

9.2.4. Situation

9.2.5. Position/Role/Power

9.2.6. Culture

9.3. Structural Approaches to Conflict Management

9.3.1. Increase resources Weigh costs versus conflict

9.3.2. Improve communication and understanding Contact hypothesis and Johari window activities

9.3.3. Reduce differentiation Create common experiences

9.3.4. Emphasize superordinate goals Focus on common goals

9.3.5. Reduce interdependence Combine jobs into one Use integrators Create buffers

9.3.6. Clarify rules and procedures Clarify roles, responsibilities, schedules etc.

10. Negotiation

10.1. Defined as a give-and-take decision-making process involving two or more parties with different preferences

10.1.1. Integrative: Win-Win

10.1.2. Distributive: Win-Lose

10.2. Using Third-Party Negotiations

10.2.1. Mediation Allowing a neutral third party to act as a facilitator through the application of reasoning, suggestion, and persuasion

10.2.2. Conciliation Occurs where the third party is someone who is trusted by both sides and services primarily as a communication link between the disagreeing parties

10.2.3. Arbitration Is where the third party has the power (authority) to impose an agreement

10.3. How individual differences influence Negotiations

10.3.1. Personality Traits in Negotiation Evidence states that you can sort of predict an opponent's negotiating tactics if you know something about his/her personality.

10.3.2. Moods/Emotions in Negotiation Influence negotiation, but the way they do appears to depend on the type of negotiation

10.3.3. Culture in Negotiations People generally negotiate more effectively within cultures than between them. In cross-cultural negotiations, it is important that the negotiators be high in openness. People are more likely to use certain negotiation strategies depending on what culture they belong to.

10.4. Gender Differences in Negotiations

10.4.1. Men and women negotiate differently, and these differences affect outcomes.

10.4.2. There is some merit to the popular stereotype that women are more cooperative, pleasant, and relationship-oriented in negotiations than are men.

10.5. Considerations When Choosing a Negotiation Approach

10.5.1. Know who you are

10.5.2. Manage outcome expectations

10.5.3. Consider the other person's outcome

10.5.4. Adhere to standards of justice

10.5.5. Remember your reputation

10.6. Emotions in Negotiation

10.6.1. Identify your ideal emotions Match your emotions to your objectives

10.6.2. Manage your emotions Take steps to promote positive emotion

10.6.3. Know your hot buttons

10.6.4. Keep your balance Know when to break or redirect

10.6.5. Identify your take-away emotions Set a goal for emotions

10.7. Ethics in Negotiations

10.7.1. The success of negotiations is influenced by the quality of information exchanged.

10.7.2. Telling lies, hiding key facts, and engaging in other potentially unethical tactics erodes trust and goodwill.

10.8. Managing Conflict and Negotiations: Putting it all in Context

10.8.1. Inputs Person Factors Personality Experience Skills and abilities Conflict-handling styles Values Needs Mindfulness Ethics Incivility Situation Factors Leadership Relationship quality Organizational climate Stressors Incivility Alternative dispute resolution practices

10.8.2. Processes Individual Level Communication Performance management practices Conflict and negotiation Emotions Interpersonal skills Trust Group/ Team Level Trust Communication Group/team dynamics Conflict and negotiation Decision making Performance management Leadership Organizational Level Human resource policies and practices Communication Leading and managing change and stress

10.8.3. Outcomes Individual Level Task performance Work attitudes Citizenship behavior/ counterproductive behavior Turnover Career outcomes Creativity Group/Team Level Group/ team performance Group cohesion and conflict Group satisfaction Organizational Level Accounting/ financial performance Customer satisfaction Innovation Reputation