Religion and the knower

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Religion and the knower by Mind Map: Religion and the knower

1. Scope (Juan)

1.1. What motivates the pursuit of knowledge in these themes/areas of knowledge?

1.1.1. Most human beings look in religion explanations to different phenomenas or experiences they have.

1.2. What practical problems can be solved through the application of knowledge from these themes/ areas of knowledge?

1.2.1. Marx: religion is concerned with qualitative states of individual and collective wellbeing.

1.2.2. What problems of knowledge do religions attempt to solve that other areas of knowledge cannot? It has narrowed throughout history. Now there are different perspectives: Non-overlapping Magisteria: science and religion should solve the problems they are best equipped to solve. Positive psychology addresses also questions of life’s purpose, meaning and value. Existential questions are often asked in religion.

1.3. What are the key current open/unanswered questions in these themes/areas of knowledge?

1.3.1. Is certainty of knowledge attainable within religion? Faith provides with certainty without sufficient evidence.

1.4. What makes this theme/area of knowledge important?

1.4.1. Most humans are religious and they base their moral codes, behaviour, society and traditions on it.

1.4.2. Religion has showed to have a quite coercive power many times.

1.5. What is the significance of key historical developments within these themes/areas of knowledge?

1.5.1. Enlightment Religion lost part of its scope to other areas of knowledge that use tools and methodologies of knowledge construction that yield more accurate and valid results as well as objective evidence. However there are still some questions that religion answers while other areas cannot, usually related to the nature of existance.

1.6. To what extent does it interconnect with other areas of knowledge?

1.6.1. To what extent do scientific developments have the power to influence thinking about religion? Is faith a prerequisite for religious knowledge? Evidence in religious texts, entering a circular faith. Scientific evolution Proved many religious theories of the creation of the human being wrong.

2. Methods & Tools (Ruth)

2.1. Why do pople follow Religions

2.1.1. Pascal’s theory: believing is worth it because the cost of not doing it is high and the cost of doing so is high. This theory has some flaws.

2.2. Where did religion come from?

2.2.1. Non religious defend it comes from biological and societal factors. HADD and theory of mind. (casual reason and cognitive states attributed to others). However, correlation does not mean causation, therefore HADD might be wrong.

2.2.2. Religious view defends it comes from God/s.

2.3. What assumptions underlie the methods of inquiry used in these themes/areas of knowledge?

2.3.1. All Religions teach the same thing

2.3.2. If you are a follower of a religion, you believe that your religion came from your god/ or the sacred individuals within your religion

2.4. What is seen as evidence in this theme

2.4.1. Language does play a pivotal role in passing on religious knowledge, which is heavily dependent on factors such as culture

2.4.2. Religious experience

2.4.3. Answered prayers

2.5. How important are material tools in the production and acquisition of knowledge?

2.5.1. Many catholics pray using a rosary, string of beads each representing a prayer or meditation

2.5.2. Some evangelical protestants hang pictures of Jesus on their walls They do not pray to the picture but it reminds them of Jesus's love

2.5.3. American Muslims center their prayers on a collection of holy places in Mecca

2.5.4. Buddhist homes contain a small shrine, often featuring a figure of the Buddha serves as center of meditation

2.6. How is knowledge produced and communicated in these themes/areas of knowledge?

2.6.1. Through Rituals Myths create shared trust. It establishes social cohesion.

2.6.2. Through religious holidays example is the Easter Holiday

2.6.3. Through the Church services during preaching

3. Ethics (Ruth)

3.1. Should the pursuit of knowledge in these themes/areas of knowledge be subject to ethical constraints?

3.1.1. Greek Philosopher believed that moral values defined whether or not we should accept religion

3.1.2. Ethical systems derived from religious knowledge are dangerous This is because their rigidity is often made by individuals with anti-religious knowledge

3.2. What responsibilities rest on the knower as a result of their knowledge in these themes/areas of knowledge?

3.2.1. If religion is intimately connected with ethics, should we expect those with religious knowledge to act more ethically than those without it? Yes ( positive distinctness) Benjamin Franklin No. Religion is detrimental to societies because they are inflexible and are thus morally certain according to their view. (Richard Dawkins) ‘Religion is evil because it can make you do evil things believing they are good’

3.3. To what extent does personal fear of isolation lead to adherence to ethical norms?

3.3.1. By putting forward an ethical system and code of conduct, religions create shared experience, shared belief and mutual trust.

3.4. Do established values change in the face of new knowledge?

3.4.1. Much religion knowledge is second hand and have been passed down through generations. Language evolves over time and some languages have even disappeared

3.4.2. Sometimes "corrupted versions" of religious texts have been appropriated and built upon.

3.4.3. An example of how language changes is of how glamour was a Scottish alteration for grammar

3.4.4. Also, religious knowledge rarely seem to be revised when new knowledge comes to light. When very strong discussions about the nature of knowledge within a particular religion occur, this generally leads to the creations of new sub-branches within a religion e.g. the birth of Protestantism

4. Perspectives (Juan)

4.1. Types of religious beliefs

4.1.1. Theism (one God) Islam, Christianity, Judaism

4.1.2. Polytheism (many Gods) Hinduism, Taoism

4.1.3. Atheism (non-existence)

4.1.4. Agnosticism (not enough evidence)

4.2. What do these themes/areas of knowledge identify about knowledge that is rooted in particular social and cultural groups?

4.2.1. Can there be religious knowledge that is independent of the culture that produces it?

4.3. Are some types of knowledge less open to interpretation than others?

4.3.1. Literal interpretations: narrow perspectives Religious literalism

4.3.2. Metaphorical or allegorical teachings taking into account the historical context.

4.4. Is an understanding of the perspective of other knowers essential in the pursuit of knowledge?

4.4.1. Throughout history religions have taken elements from one another, creating interconnections between them. Does this imply that they are actually not true, but made up? Or does it mean that they were inspired by a common universal deity?

4.4.2. This allows to identify common values or beliefs and understand the main areas of discussion. It helps us judge our own belief system

4.5. To what extent is it legitimate for a non-believer to criticise the content of a religious belief?

4.5.1. Cottingham’s perspective is that the comprehensive elements of religion lead to a whole that is greater than the sum of its parts with regard to insight and understanding. It would be as saying only believers can really understand the benefits of religion.

4.5.2. Two confronted views Why do you care what I believe Religious beliefs that don’t stay personal

4.5.3. Pastafarismo Judges to what extent a religion is considered to be true. Criticises the idea that of religious beliefs that they consider to be apparently untrue.