Cell structue

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Cell structue by Mind Map: Cell structue

1. Lysosomes

1.1. Used to breakdown waste material in cells and pathogen ingested in phagocytes

1.2. •Contains hydrolitic enzymes contained by a membrane •Works best in acidic conditions so would have little effective in neutral cytoplasm •made by golgi apparatus •breaks down proteins, carbs, lipids and nucleic acid •important in cell apoptosis

1.3. Stains dark with no distinguishable features under electron light

2. Cytoskeleton

2.1. Network of fibres throughout eukaryotic cytoplasm, stability and shape of cell

2.2. makes organelles stay in place and controls movement •intracellular movement •cellular movement- flagella has cytoskeleton • strengthening and support •Microfilament - polymers of actin protein • contractile fibres • cell movement + contraction in cytokinesis •intermediate filament, made of variety of proteins •10nm in diameter •gives mechanical and structural strength • anchor nucleus • extend between tissue and cells ie basement membrane •microtubules - globular tublin proteins polymerase and form tubes • determine cell shape • spindle fibres composed of microtubules • acts as tracks for organelles Cytoskeletal motor proteins: kinesis, myosin and dyneins are molecular motors

3. Chloroplast

3.1. Responsible for photosyntheis

3.2. • has double membrane • thylakoids are internal membranes that form stacks of grana - joined by intergranal lamelle - site of light dependent stage • chlorophyll contained in thylakoids • fluid called stroma fills space • lots found in palisade mesophyll cell • has its own dna and strach grains

4. Vaculoe

4.1. Maintains turgid and rigid structure

4.2. • surrounded by membrane- tonoplast -seletively permeable • can press against cell wall to make it turgid

5. Centrioles

5.1. Involved in organisation and assembly of spindle fibres during cell division

5.2. • made of 2 microtubules - tublin and protein subunits • two centrioles make a centromere • has positioning role in organisms with flagella and cilia

6. Golgi apparatus

6.1. Modifies and packages proteins into vesicles

6.1.1. Protein production

6.1.2. • proteins synthesised by ribosomes at Endoplasmic Reticulum •passed to cisternse where they are packaged into transport vesicles • move via cytoskeleton to fuse w cis face of golig apparatus • modified leave via the trans face secretory vesicles take to membrane • secretory vesicles fuse to cell membrane release by exocytosis • some make lysomed

6.2. • similar to SER but not interconnected • series of flatterned membrane, cisternae • the cis and trans golgi network • transport molecules from RER join at cis face - have proteins and lipids •Modified and packaged sent to trans network • makes lysomes and cell wall

7. Mitochondria

7.1. Produces ATP for energy and carry out last stages of aerobic respiration

7.2. • 70s ribosomes • have its own mitochondrial DNA for replcication if more energy is needed and enzymes •Double membrane fluid between them- matrix - inner membrane folds to form cisternae w enzymes for respiration • energy stored in bonds

8. Nucleus

8.1. Contains the genetic information for the organism, has mRNA so responsible for protein synthesis and cell activities

8.2. • Double membrane known as nuclear envelope • has nuclear pores to allow organelles into cytoplasm • chromatin is unwound dna found in nucleoplasm - dna wrapped around protein histones •nuclueolus makes rRna passes through nuclear pores • stores organisms genomes Viable under light microscope

9. Flagella and cilia

9.1. Composed of microtubules on cell surface

9.2. •Move and create current • propel cell • or more liquids across liquids cell surface • flagella longer for motility/ sensory organs detection changed in chemical environment - ring of 9 pairs of microtubules surrounded by 2 central microtubules •cilia beats and creates current • sensory organ

10. Ribosomes

10.1. Synthesis proteins

10.2. • made of 2 molecules rRNA and protein • have 2 main components - large and small combine in the cytoplasm after passing through nuclear envelope • 80s ribosomes, bigger than plants • found in cystol of cells - cytosol is the fluid of cytoplasm

11. Prokaryotes

11.1. • dna is supercoiled chromosome • genes arranged in operons can switch on and off • cell wall made of murein/ peptiglycon • less than 2 nanometeres •70s ribosomes

12. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

12.1. Makes proteins for transport and secretion

12.2. •ribosomes embedded in membrane - make proteins for transport and secreation •new proteins enter lumen modified w carbs - transported to golgi apparatus for processing • transport of chemicals is done in inner membrane- endomembrane • fluid filled cavities called cisternae - form channels for transport

13. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

13.1. Makes lipids and phospholipids for cell membranes

13.2. • no ribosomes • has enzymes to detoxify lipid soluble drugs and harmful products of metabolism • lots in the liver cell • continous w RER