European Union

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European Union by Mind Map: European Union

1. History

1.1. 1950: Born after WW 2 - European Coal and Steel Community

1.1.1. Founding countries: France, The Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg

1.2. 1957: Became the European Economic Community, now they cooperate in more areas. Created with the Treaty of Rome

1.3. Denmark joined in 1973 (with UK)

1.4. Became EU in 92. With the Maastricht Treaty

1.4.1. EU Citizenship

1.5. Today 27 member countries

2. EU insitutions

2.1. EU Parliament

2.1.1. Directly elected by citizens

2.1.1.1. Intergovernmentalism

2.1.2. Discuss and votes about laws

2.1.3. The members isn't divided by countries, but by political party

2.1.3.1. 751 members

2.1.3.2. Supranationalism

2.1.4. Approves budget and commisioners

2.2. The European council

2.2.1. Set EU's directions and priorities

2.2.2. Meets at least four times a year

2.2.3. Consist of heads of states

2.2.3.1. Intergovernmentalist

2.3. EU council

2.3.1. Discuss and adopts EU legislation together with the parliament

2.3.2. Intergovernmentalism

2.3.3. Made up by national government ministers

2.3.3.1. Divided by policy areas; environment, employment etc.

2.4. The EU commision

2.4.1. "EU government" = guarantee the "general interest of the EU"

2.4.1.1. Supranationalistic

2.4.2. Driver for integration

2.4.3. responsibilities: budget, suggestions of laws

2.4.4. the executive power

3. Agreements

3.1. Free trade

3.2. Free movement

4. Differentiated integration

4.1. States are not willing to give the same prerogatives to the EU - States are able to take part of different agreements (reservations)

4.1.1. Immigrants

4.1.2. Euro-zone

4.1.2.1. 2002

4.1.3. Divorce laws

5. Integration

5.1. European integration

5.1.1. Deepening

5.1.1.1. Covers more and more areas

5.1.2. Widening

5.1.2.1. More countries joining

5.1.3. Look at table in slide 11 Peter and Marie's slides

5.2. Issues with integration

5.2.1. States loose sovereignty

6. Theories applied to the EU

6.1. Realism

6.1.1. Institutions do not really play a role

6.1.1.1. Intergovernmentalism

6.1.2. Can't explain EU integration

6.1.2.1. Because according to realism, EU should have dissolved after the end of the cold war

6.2. Liberalism

6.2.1. Focus on the role of institutions

6.2.2. The EU has power on it's own

6.2.2.1. Supranationalism

6.3. Critical theory

6.3.1. If EU creates ideas about the necessaty of EU, then the EU will gain more power

7. Challenges for the EU

7.1. Accused of being...

7.2. Ineffecient

7.2.1. Too much bureaucracy

7.2.1.1. Migration and climate crisis are not solved

7.3. Too expensive

7.4. non-democratic

7.4.1. Only the parliament that is selected by EU citizens

7.5. Brexit

7.5.1. Looses power the more countries that leave

8. Activty/applied example of differentiated integrations

8.1. Greece and Poland: eurozone

8.1.1. Poland: euro scepticism

8.1.2. Poland does not have the euro, Greece havePoland does not have the euro, Greece have

8.1.3. Greece (1981) have been part of the EU for longer than Poland (member in 2004)

8.2. Switzerland and Austria: Schengen

8.2.1. Schengen: no boarder control

8.2.2. Switzerland part of Schengen, but not EU

8.3. Banking Union

8.3.1. Sweden, not part of it

8.3.2. Netherlands part of it

8.3.3. create more safe banking after the financial crisis

8.4. TSCG

8.4.1. about fiscal policies - almost all are a part of this

8.5. see slide 23, Marie's