Laughter Out of Place

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Laughter Out of Place by Mind Map: Laughter Out of Place

1. Carnival

1.1. Almost spiritual experience, juxtaposes harsh realities of the poor and the contentment of the rich they work for

1.1.1. Most of the poor, however, do not have the means to participate; they are "burnt out" from the concept later in life

2. Humor can be a liberal, revolutionary force

2.1. Thompson and Scott- Humor can act as a weapon of the "weak" against those with power

3. Humor as a running commentary

3.1. Humor is born out of sorrow, oppression

3.1.1. New node

4. Humor as reinforcing the status quo

4.1. "Escape-valve" analysis claims humor allows for social strains to be expressed without eliciting change

5. Hegemony is "habit forming"

5.1. "Every act is mitigated through class position and is implicitly a class act...

5.2. Hides the dominance of one class over another

6. Brazil

6.1. History

6.1.1. Became the world's largest slave economy between the 16th and 19th centuries

6.1.2. Triangle trade among Brazil, Europe and Africa lead to the import of over 3.5 million slaves for sugar plantations and later to excavate gold and diamond mines

6.1.3. Portuguese monarchy fled Europe directly for Brazil after invasion by Napoleon. Once returned to Lisbon, monarch's son Dom Pedro I (who was left to rule) declared Brazil independent from Portugal.

6.1.3.1. Slavery is abolished formerly in 1888 (the last of all colonies) and the next year Dom Pedro II is dethroned by the army. The Brazilian Republic is established.

6.1.3.1.1. Industrialization is slow. Rio supplies civil servant and white-collar workers. Sao Paulo focuses on industry. Afro-Brazilians forced to slum's outside of city centers

6.1.4. From 1930 to 1988 the country was run primarily by military installed dictators and elections were sporadic. Populism, Communism and other groups both liberal and conservative began to take footholds. The late 1960's and early 1970's saw formation of guerrilla rebel groups.

6.1.4.1. In 1988, Brazil drafted "one of the most advanced and sophisticated constitutions in the world." Though it "guarantees" fundamental rights, these rights are usually ignored in their application.

6.1.4.1.1. In the 1990's, leftist Cristovam Buarque accused the Left of condoning the political elite of Brazil. He charged that "intellectuals are part of the elite," separate from the masses.